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Volume 85, 1957-58
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Revision of the Rhaphidophoridae (Orthoptera) of New Zealand
Part III.—The Genera Pachyrhamma Brunner and Pallidoplectron n.g. *

[Received by the Editor, November 6, 1957.]

Abstract

A key is given to the family Rhaphidophoridae and also to the known genera of New Zealand Macropathinae. Two further species are added to the genus Pachyrhamma and the synonymy of P. longipes is discussed. A fresh key to this genus is given. A new monotypic genus Pallidoplectron is erected.

The family Rhaphidophoridae was erected by Kirby in 1883 and later was split into three subfamilies: Macropathinae Karny 1928, Rhaphidophorinae Karny 1928 and Ceuthophilinae Blatchley 1920. The Macropathinae are typically paleantarctic in distribution, including New Zealand, South Australia, Patagonia and the Cape of Good Hope; the Rhaphidophorinae occur mainly in the Indo-Australian region, but are also found in Japan and parts of Europe; while the Ceuthophilinae are endemic to N. America.

Key to the Family Rhaphidophoridae Kirby
1. Proximal segment of hind tarsus bears two apical spines Macropathinae.
Proximal segment of hind tarsus with a single apical spine, or without spines 2
2. Posterior tibiae either armed with many short equal spines or with a few spines of unequal length Rhaphidophorinae
Posterior tibiae armed with relatively long spines which are separated in the middle region by a fine regular spination Ceuthophilinae

In 1869, Walker described the first genus belonging to the New Zealand Macropathinae. After him further genera were added by Bolivar, Brunner and Pictet and Saussure. In 1897, Hutton published the first major work on the sub-family. He revised the known genera and added several new ones to the fauna. Since then Chopard, Salmon and myself have all contributed new genera. The following key to the New Zealand genera is based in many cases on generic descriptions only, the type material having been lost. In examining the types of Talitropsis, Macropathus and Pleioplectron I have found several major differences from Hutton's generic descriptions, so that I have some misgivings as to the accuracy of his remaining genera and consequently to the practicability of this key.

Throughout this paper the term linear spines refers to those spines along the length of the leg, while apical spines refers to the spines at the distal end of each joint.

Key to the Macropathinae of New Zealand
1. Some femora with apical spines 2
All femora without apical spines Pharmacus Pictet & Saussure
2. Fore femora without apical spines Isoplectron Hutton
Fore femora with apical spines 3

[Footnote] * This paper is part of a study carried out at Victoria University of Wellington, during the tenure of a New Zealand University Research Fund Fellowship.

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3. Middle femora with only one apical spine 4
Middle femora with two apical spines 5
4 Hind tibiae with two rows of alternating large and small spines Talitropsis Bolivar (synonymised with Gammaroparnops Alfken).
Hind tibiae with two rows of spines gradually increasing in size towards distal end Macropathus Walker
5. Hind femora with two apical spines Pachyrhamma Brunner
Hind femora with less than two apical spines 6
6. Middle tibiae with linear spines on ventral and lateral surfaces Turbottoplectron Salmon
Middle tibiae with linear spines on ventral surface only 7
7. Fore and middle tibiae with a single pair of apical spines Neonetus Hutton
Fore and middle tibiae with two pairs of apical spines 8
8 Hind tibiae with two pairs of apical spines Weta Chopard
Hind tibiae with three or four pairs of apical spines 9
9 Hind tibiae with three pairs of apical spines Pleioplectron Hutton (Synonymised with Miotopus Hutton)
Hind tibiae with four pairs of apical spines 10
10 Metasternum with a blunt tubercle in the middle Ischyroplectron Hutton
Metasternum without a blunt tubercle in the middle 11
11 Fore and middle femora without linear spines beneath Pallidoplectron n g
Fore and middle femora with 8–10 linear spines beneath Paraneonetus Salmon

Gammaroparnops and Miotopus have both been synonymised by the author, the former in “Revision of the Rhaphidophoridae (Orthoptera) of New Zealand.” Part I (Richards, 1958)

Two genera only of the New Zealand Macropathinae are dealt with in this paper, Pachyrhamma Walker and Pallidoplectron n.g., which may be separated by.

1.

The fore femur in Pachyrhamma bears one prolateral apical spine, while in Pallidoplectron it bears two, one prolateral and the other retrolateral.

2.

The hind femur in Pachyrhamma bears two apical spines, one prolateral and the other retrolateral; while in Pallidoplectron it bears only one prolateral apical spine.

3.

The subgenital plate of the male in Pachyrhamma is triangular with the ventral surface not keeled, but bearing a round apical protuberance; while in Pallidoplectron it is triangular with a well-developed keel with a bottle-shaped lobe on the ventral surface, but no protuberance.

In this paper two further species are added to the genus Pachyrhamma, bringing the total number of species known to five A fresh key to the genus is therefore now necessary.

Key to the Species of Pachyrhamma
1 Antennae in male armed with spines 2
Antennae in male without spines 3
2 Antennae in male with 5 or 6 large blunt spines, posterior femora, male and female, bearing approximately 21 retrolateral linear spines beneath P. acanthocera Milligan
Antennae in male with numerous small, sharp spines, posterior femora, male and female, bearing approximately 4 retrolateral linear spines beneath P fascifer Walker
3 Suranal plate with a small, blunt, median spine in the female, and a large blunt median spine in the male, subgenital plate in male with sides expanding, spatulate distally P delli Richards
Suranal plate without spine, subgenital plate in male with sides concave, not spatulate distally 4
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4 Posterior tibia with approximately 32 prolateral and 36 retrolateral linear spines above; two proximal segments of posterior tarsus bearing linear spines P. waitomoensis n. sp.
Posterior tibia with approximately 10 prolateral and 12 retrolateral linear spines above; hind tarsus without spines P. longipes (Colenso)

Pachyrhamma longipes (Colenso, 1887) Text-figure 1, figs. 1–5.

1887 Hemideina longipes Colenso, Trans. Proc. N. Z. Inst, 19, p. 145.

1895. Macropathus maximus Buller, Trans. Proc. N. Z. Inst., 27, p. 145.

1897. Gymnoplectron longipes (Colenso, 1887), Hutton, Trans. Proc. N.Z. Inst., 29, pp. 229–230; Pl XII, Figs. 11, 11a; Pl. XIII, Fig. 11b.

In 1887, Colenso described “a large and new species of Orthopterous Insect, of the Genus Hemideina Walker” as Hemideina longipes saying, “This is a very remarkable species, from the comparative shortness of its body and great length of its stout posterior pair of legs, which are nearly four times the length of its body and head!” Colenso's type specimen has been re-examined by the author and his description of the insect is accurate, but not sufficiently detailed. Unfortunately he had but one specimen, a male, which is imperfect owing to cannibalism; the antennae, upper part of the head, maxillae and prosternum are missing and teeth marks are clearly visible. So his description is based primarily on the body and legs, the genitalia being left undescribed. Colenso considered H. longipes “to possess characters belonging to those two closely allied genera (Deinacrida and Hemideina)”.

Eight years later in 1895, Buller added a fourth and new species to Walker's genus Macropathus as M. maximus, with the reservation that it might be necessary “to make it the type of an entirely new genus” Taking M. fascifer as a typical example of the genus, Buller proceeds to point out the differences between it and his new species. He claims that M. fascifer has a shining surface, while that of M. maximus is dull; this however, is not the case, both of them being dull. Next he says that M. maximus “like Deinacrida has ten dorsal segments behind the thoracic shield, instead of eight as in M. fascifer”, while in actual fact both have ten abdominal tergites. He says that M. maximus “has fine and slender antennae” and observes them to be “entirely free from the minute knobs and spines that occur on the antennae of M. fascifer”. Although correct, this surely is only a specific character, and not worthy of generic rank. He claims that M. maximus “has numerous spines on the four anterior femora, whereas M. fascifer has only two”. Of Buller's species, 22 specimens including the type, have been examined by the author, and the spines on the four anterior femora have been found to range from two to five in number, which can hardly be considered as “numerous”. Moreover, Walker's original description of M. fascifer says, “Femora and four anterior tibiae armed with a few spines on each side beneath”; but of M. altus he says, “Four anterior femora with two minute spines beneath near the tips” From this it can be seen that Buller was referring to Walker's description of M. altus, as M. fascifer and M. altus were not synonymised till Hutton's paper in 1897. The present author has examined over 150 specimens of M. fascifer (now Pachyrhamma fascifer) and recorded the variability which occurs in the number of spines on the legs (Richards, 1954); comparison has shown great similarity between the two species in the number of spines present. Finally Buller says that the spines on the hind femora are more numerous in M. maximus than in M. fascifer. This is quite correct, but again is only a specific difference.

Unlike Colenso, Buller records the variability in number of the spines on the legs, observing that spine counts for both right and left legs do not tally. He says, “It will be seen therefore, that the number of spines is a very uncertain character”. His description of the insect's coloration is more accurate than Colenso's; but, like Colenso, he fails to mention the genitalia As with Colenso, he had but one specimen, a male

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Text-fig. 1—Pachyrhamma longipes (Colenso). Fig. 1—Female genitalia dorsal view. Fig. 2—Female genitalia ventral view Fig. 3—Male genitalia dorsal view Fig. 4—Male genitalia ventral view, hypandrium in place Fig. 5—Male genitalia ventral view, hypandrium removed to expose structures beneath

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Fig. 1.—Pachyrhamma longipes male, lateral view Photo. M. D. King.
Fig. 2.—P. longipes female, lateral view Photo. M. D. King.
Fig. 3.—Pachyrhamma waitomoensis male, lateral view Photo. S. A. Rumse.
Fig. 4.—P. waitomoensis female, lateral view Photo, S. A. Rumsey.
Fig. 5.—Pallidoplectron turneri male, lateral view Photo. S. a. Rumsey.
Fig. 6.—P. turneri female, lateral view Photo. S. A. Rumsey.

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Fortunately both Colenso's and Buller's type material may still be examined, and they are unquestionably identical, thus making Macropathus maximus the synonym of Hemideina longipes. Buller admits that he was not able to examine Colenso's specimen, but he says that after careful study of the description he is satisfied that it does not apply to his own specimen, which he thinks is an inhabitant of caves or overhanging rocks.

When in 1897 Hutton wrote his paper on “The Stenopelmatidae of New Zealand”, he was able to examine both Colenso's and Buller's specimens and synonymise them Re-examination of the family showed that Hemideina longipes belonged to the sub-family Dolichopodinae and not to the Anostostominae, and so had to be removed from the genus Hemideina. Hutton obviously did not agree with Buller's placing of the species in the genus Macropathus and, without commenting, he placed it in a new genus Gymnoplectron as G. longipes.

G. longipes is by no means common, and appears to be confined to the North Island, where it is widely distributed in areas of native bush. Over the last 70 years, 20 specimens have been collected, of which only five are females, showing them to be comparatively rare. The female is described here for the first time. Comparison of these specimens (including the type) with Hutton's generic and specific descriptions show four small points of difference. Describing the setae on the antennae he says, “the hairs very short, none on the basal joints”; but the basal joints in all cases are sparsely clothed with setae. Of the middle tibia he says, “unarmed above”; but in all specimens examined, including the type, spines are present on the dorsal surface. He describes the apical spurs on the hind tibiae as “twice as long” as the inferior apical spines; but this is never the case, as they are always less than twice as long. He also claims that the apical spines on the hind tibiae “all are without hairs”, whereas the apical spurs and ventral pair of apical spines are all clothed with setae.

Careful comparison of Gymnoplectron longipes with my redescription of the genus Macropathus (Richards, 1954) has shown only a minor point of difference, and with a slight modification of the generic description of -Macropathus, it is possible to place the species longipes back in the genus. Macropathus and sink the genus Gymnoplectron Hutton into the synonymy of the genus Macropathus Walker. The subgenital plate of the female in longipes has the distal margin tapering to a point, while for Macropathus the distal margin is widely emarginate. The shape of the subgenital plate is a specific rather than a generic character, and in the male in longipes the plate conforms to the generic description for Macropathus.

One of the main reasons why Hutton placed longipes in a separate genus from Macropathus was because he considered that the hind tibiae had four pairs of apical spines in longipes, while all members of the genus Macropathus had three pairs. Re-examination has shown the structure of the hind tibiae to be similar with three pairs of apical spines.

Through the courtesy of Dr. D. Ragge of the British Museum (Nat Hist.) the author has recently been allowed to examine Walker's original type material of the genus Macropathus (Richards, 1958) and, although my redescription of the genus Macropathus (Richards, 1954) still holds, the name of the genus has been changed to Pachyrhamma, so that the correct name of the species longipes becomes Pachyrhamma longipes.

The species Pachyrhamma longipes is now redefined as follows:—

Colour Basic colour chestnut brown, marbled with light and deeper chestnut Anterior border of pronotum and posterior borders of thoracic and abdominal terga deep chestnut with margins ochrous; anal segment dark brown, almost black; fore and middle femora and tibiae chestnut brown sparsely mottled with deep ochrous; tarsi deep ochrous; posterior femora proximally chestnut brown transversely banded with deep ochrous, distal portion and spines reddish-brown; posterior tibiae, tarsi and spines reddish-brown to deep reddish-brown; ovipositor deep reddish-brown. Fore and middle femora and tibiae in nymph pinkish-brown.

Body Length up to 44 mm; average length 32.1 mm Antennae 4.2 times as long as body. Pronotum having the inferior margins of the lobes horizontal with only the corners.

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rounded. Lobes of meso- and metanota margined, rounded, with the anterior angles obliquely cut off. Cerci, Fig. 1 (C), 0.23 length of ovipositor.

Antennae. Scape longer than broad on dorsal aspect, approximately as long as broad on ventral aspect, about five times as large as pedicel on dorsal aspect and twice as large on ventral aspect; third segment on dorsal aspect one-third as long as pedicel, and on ventral aspect variable, being either slightly less, the same, or slightly longer than pedicel; basal segments sparsely clothed with setae, all other segments thickly clothed with short golden setae. Sexual dimorphism present in antennae, male possessing longer, stouter antennae than female; no spines present on flagellum of male.

Table I.—Variability in Number of Linear Spines on the Legs
Pachyrhamma longipes (Colenso).
Arith. Mean Std. Dev. Number of Specimens.
Prolat. Fore Femur 3.9–3.3 1.20–1.25 22–22
Retrolat. Inf. 0–0 0–0 22–22
Prolat. Fore Tibia 3.2–3.2 0.46–0.54 22–21
Retrolat. Inf. 3.0–3.04 0.67–0.49 22–21
Prolat. Fore Tarsus 0–0 0–0 22–21
Retrolat. 0–0 0–0 22–21
Prolat. Mid. Femur 2.1–2 1.45–1.21 22–20
Retrolat. Inf. 3.1–2.7 1.15–1.12 22–20
Prolat. Mid. Tibia 3.4–3.4 1.23–0.88 22–20
Retrolat. Sup. 0.2–0.2 0.52–0.52 22–20
Prolat. Mid. Tibia 3.1–3.1 0.29–0.29 22–20
Retrolat. Inf. 32–31 0.39–0.44 22–20
Prolat. Mid. Tarsus 0–0 0–0 22–20
Retrolat. 0–0 0–0 22–20
Prolat. Post. Femur 126–12.6 1.36–1.36 22–22
Retrolat. Inf. 182–186 357–4.11 22–22
Prolat. Post. Tibia 108–109 167–201 22–22
Retrolat. Sup. 12.6–12 3.14–3.04 22–22
Prolat. Post. Tarsus 0–0 0–0 22–22
Retrolat. 1 Sup. 0–0 0–0 22–22
Prolat. Post. Tarsus 0–0 0–0 22–22
Retrolat. 2 Sup. 0–0 0–0 22–22

Legs. Fore and middle legs subequal in length, with hind leg twice as long again. Inferior keels of all femora with numerous blunt serrations. Fore, middle and hind femora and tibiae armed with variable number of linear spines (Table I). No linear spines occur on fore, middle or hind tarsi. Apical spines constant in number as in generic description. On hind tibiae prolateral apical spur longer than retrolateral one, both clothed with short setae. Second segment of hind tarsus a little more than half the length of first; second, third and fourth segments together longer than first Ratio of length of legs to length of body are—Female: fore leg 1.72:1; middle leg 1.62:1; hind leg 3.0:1. Male: fore leg 2.19.1; middle leg 2.28.1; hind leg 4.52:1; showing sexual dimorphism in length of legs.

Genitalia. Female: Suranal plate, Fig. 1 (SAP), with lateral margin concave proximally, changing to convex distally, rounded terminally with two groups of setae. Whole plate clothed with short setae. Paraprocts, Fig. 1 (PP), large, elongate, clothed with setae. Subgenital plate, Fig. 2 (SGP), 1.6 wider than long, convex laterally, slightly indented 0.33 along from proximal end, bluntly pointed terminally. Whole plate clothed with short setae. Male: Suranal plate, Fig. 3 (SPL), slightly convex laterally, distal margin emarginate; whole plate clothed with short setae. Subgenital plate (hypandrium), Fig. 4 (H), triangulate, as wide as long, sides spreading slightly proximally, tapering to concave distally with rounded apex, more distal portion elongate, ridged laterally and depressed medianly, projecting beyond suranal plate Round apical protuberance on ventral surface thickly clothed with short setae. Whole plate on dorsal surface sparsely clothed with short setae Two styli, Fig. 4 (S), thickly clothed with short setae, length of styli being 0.21 length of sternite IX. Subgenital plate covers genitalia. Parameres, Figs. 4, 5 (P) attenuated, broad at base, twice as long as broad, rounded distally, but tapering to a point at latero-distal border; prolateral margin thickly clothed with short setae, rest of paramere more sparsely clothed Pseudosternite, Fig. 5 (PD), 1.5 as wide as long, convex laterally, tapering to a point distally. Penis, Fig. 5 (PN), two-lobed, each lobe nearly as long as broad Paraprocts, Figs. 4, 5 (PP), elongate, twice as long as broad, 0.75 as large as parameres.

Localities. Norsewood, Waipawa, on totara trees (type locality), coll. timber men; Coromandel, near Auckland, coll Mr. Teutenberg; Kaitoke, coll. G. V. Hudson;

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Urewera, in bush, coll. G. A. Moore; Taumaranui, coll. unknown; Mt. Egmont, coll. R. Sole, J. T. Salmon, M. P. Buchler, G. W. Ramsay; Wairongamai, Featherston, coll. H. D. Warren, Akatarawa, coll. M. Redington, Days Bay Bush, coll. Mr. Marryat; Waitaanga, North Taranaki, in cut over bush, coll. R. E. Barwick; Wainuiomata, coll. D. Rishworth; Waitomo, in bush, coll. A. M. Richards; Puhi Puhi Forest, North Auckland, coll. R. Zondag.

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Text-fig. 2—Pachyrhamma waitomoensis n. sp. Fig. 1—Female genitalia dorsal view. Fig. 2—Female genitalia ventral view. Fig. 3—Male genitalia ventral view, hypandrium in place. Fig. 4—Male genitalia dorsal view. Fig. 5—Male genitalia ventral view, hypandrium removed to expose structures beneath.

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Types. Holotype male (Colenso's type for Hemideina longipes) in Canterbury Museum Collection. Paratype female in Hudson Collection, Dominion Museum. Male and female paratypes in Dominion Museum Collection.

Pachyrhamma longipes has no close affinities to any of the species so far placed in the genus Pachyrhamma. It differs from the other species in:

1

The relatively small number of spines on the hind tibiae.

2.

Absence of spines, other than apical ones, from hind tarsi.

3.

Shape of the subgenital plate of female.

Pachyrhamma waitomoensis n. sp. Text-figure 2. Figs. 1–5.

Colour. Basic colour light brown, with anterior and posterior borders of pronotum and posterior borders of mesonotum, metanotum and abdominal terga dark brown; lateral borders of pronotum and mesonotum mid brown; nota irregularly mottled with light and mid brown; abdominal terga mottled with mid brown, light brown and ochrous; femora and tibiae banded with ochrous and light brown, mid brown at their junctions; tarsi pale ochrous; antennae light brown; ovipositor deep reddish-brown.

Body Length up to 33 mm; average length in male 32 mm; average length in female 30 mm. Antennae in male 5.5–6 times as long as body, and in female 4.8–5.3 times as long as body. Fastigium almost as high as long. Cerci long, tapering in female, but rounded terminally in male, unsegmented, clothed with long and short setae.

Antennae. As in generic description. Sexual dimorphism poorly developed, antennae of male slightly stouter at base and longer than female; no spines present on flagellum of male or female.

Legs. Long and slender. Fore and middle legs subequal, with hind leg slightly less than twice length of fore or middle legs in female, and slightly more than twice length of fore or middle legs in male. Sexual dimorphism is shown by fore and middle legs of female being 0.8 as long as male, and hind legs of female 0.66 as long as male. Fore and middle femora unarmed, hind femora bearing a variable number of linear spines beneath; fore, middle and hind tibiae and two proximal segments of hind tarsi armed with variable numbers of linear spines (Table II) No spines occur on fore or middle tarsi. Apical spines constant in number, as in generic description. On hind tibiae prolateral apical spur longer than retrolateral one, both clothed with short setae. Ratios of lengths of legs to length of body: fore leg, male, 1.9:1; female, 1.8:1. Middle leg, male, 2:1; female, 1.7:1. Hind leg, male, 4.6:1; female, 3.2:1.

Genitalia Female: Suranal plate, Fig. 1 (SAP), rounded laterally, with terminal margin emarginate and bearing two groups of setae Subgenital plate, Fig. 2 (SGP), concave laterally, terminal margin deeply emarginate, whole plate very sparsely clothed with setae. Male: Suranal plate, Fig. 4 (SPL), convex laterally, slightly emarginate terminally. Subgenital plate

Table II.—Variability in Number of Linear Spines on the Legs
Pachyrhamma waitomoensis n.sp.
Arith Mean Std. Dev. Number of Specimens
Prolat. Fore Femur 0–0 0–0 22–22
Retrolat. Inf. 0–0 0–0 22–22
Prolat. Fore Tibia 2.95–3 0.31–0 22–22
Retrolat. Inf. 3–3 0–0 22–22
Prolat. Fore Tarsus 0–0 0–0 22–22
Retrolat. 0–0 0–0 22–22
Prolat. Mid. Femur 0–0 0–0 22–22
Retrolat. Inf. 0–0 0–0 22–22
Prolat. Mid. Tibia 2.3–2.2 0.9–1.07 22–22
Retrolat. Sup. 1.7–1.9 1.02–1.1 22–22
Prolat. Mid. Tibia 3–3 0–0 22–22
Retrolat. Inf. 3–3 0–0 22–22
Prolat. Mid. Tarsus 0–0 0–0 22–22
Retrolat. 0–0 0–0 22–22
Prolat. Post. Femur 5.4–5.3 0.73–0.67 22–20
Retrolat. Inf. 1.7–1.9 0.63–1.04 22–20
Prolat. Post. Tibia 32.5–32.6 2.61–2.78 22–20
Retrolat. Sup. 35.6–36.0 2.79–2.92 22–20
Prolat. Post. Tarsus 2.5–2.7 0.73–0.8 22–20
Retrolat. 1 Sup. 2.9–2.7 0.81–1.03 22–20
Prolat. Post. Tarsus 0.4–0.5 0.5–0.51 22–20
Retrolat. 2 Sup. 0.6–0.7 0.49–0.47 22–20
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(hypandrium), Fig. 3 (H), triangulate, 1.2 as long as wide, sides spreading slightly proximally, tapering to concave distally with a pointed apex, glabrous on dorsal side, but with apical protuberance on ventral surface thickly clothed with short red-brown setae. Two styli, Fig. 3 (S), thickly clothed with short setae, length of styli being 0.2 length of sternite IX (S IX). Subgenital plate covers genitalia. Parameres, Figs. 3, 5 (P), attenuated, broad at base and tapering to a point, twice as long as broad, prolateral margin thickly clothed with long setae. Pseudosternite, Fig. 5 (PD), as long as broad, tapering to a point distally. Penis, Fig. 5 (PN), two-lobed, each lobe as broad as long and bearing a small medial lateral lobe. Paraprocts, Fig. 3, 4, 5 (PP), small, twice as long as broad.

Locality. Waitomo Caves (type locality), coll. A. M. Richards; Te Anga, coll. R. Lambert.

Types. Holotype male, Allotype female and Paratype male in Auckland Institute and Museum Collection. Paratype male and female in British Museum (Natural History) Collection.

Pachyrhamma waitomoensis is most closely related to P. acanthocera. but differs from it in:

1.

The absence of spines on antennae of mature male.

2.

The absence of spines on fore or middle femora.

3.

The spines on hind femora being greatly reduced in number.

4.

The occurrence of spines on second segment of hind tarsi.

Genus Pallidoplectron n g

Body clothed with numerous short setae Legs long and slender. Antennae very long and tapering, almost touching at their bases; scape about four times as large as pedicel, which is narrower than scape, but broader than other segments; from fourth segment onwards segments subequal, although steadily decreasing in size A single anterior, white, median ocellus only. Fastigium rising abruptly and truncated apically. Apical spines on femora, tibiae, first and second proximal segments of hind tarsi constant in number. Fore femur bears two apical spines beneath, one prolateral and one retrolateral; fore tibia bears four apical spines, one above and one beneath, both prolaterally and retrolaterally; fore tarsus unarmed. Middle femur bears two apical spines beneath, one prolateral and the other retrolateral; middle tibia bears four apical spines, one above and one beneath, both prolaterally and retrolaterally; middle tarsus unarmed Hind femur bears one apical spine prolaterally; hind tibia bears a pair of long apical spurs above, a pair of subapical spines above, a pair of short apical spurs beneath, and a pair of subapical spines beneath, one from each pair being prolateral and the other retrolateral; two proximal segments of hind tarsus each bear two apical spines above, one prolateral and one retrolateral; the other two segments unarmed. Subgenital plate of female bearing two small tubercles fused together. Subgenital plate of male triangular, as wide as long; sides slightly lobed proximally, concave distally tapering to a rounded apex, medianly it bears a well-developed keel; ventral surface with lateral margins curved back over plate. Latero-medianly the plate bears two long styli, one to each side.

Type species for the genus: Pallidoplectron turneri n. sp.

Apart from superficial resemblances, this genus does not appear to have any close affinities with any other genera in the Rhaphidophoridae so far described.

Pallidoplectron turneri n. sp. Text-figure 3. Figs. 1–7.

Colour Basic colour ochrous, with anterior and posterior borders of pronotum and posterior borders of mesonotum, metanotum and abdominal terga light brown; lateral borders of pronotum and mesonotum light brown; nota and abdominal terga irregularly mottled with light brown and deep ochrous, femora and tibiae banded with light brown and deep and pale ochrous, light brown at junction of hind femur and tibia; tarsi pale ochrous; antennae light brown with narrow bands of ochrous; ovipositor ochrous, pale reddish-brown at tip and along edges of dorsal and ventral valves.

Body Length up to 18 mm; average length 16 mm. Ovipositor 0.8 as long as body. Antennae in male 8.7–9.2 times as long as body, and in female 8–8.3 times as long as body. Fastigium, Figs. 6, 7, twice as long as high, with base touching scape of antennae. Maxillary palpi with third joint 0.2 times longer than fourth. Pronotum and mesonotum distinctly margined laterally and posteriorly.

Antennae As in generic description. Third segment on dorsal aspect narrower than pedicel, but 0.25 as long again, and on ventral aspect equal or subequal in length with pedicel. All segments thickly clothed with short golden setae. Sexual dimorphism very poorly developed, antennae of male slightly longer than those of female; no spines present on flagellum of male or female.

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Text-fig 3—Pallidoplectron turneri n. sp. Fig. 1—Female genitalia dorsal view. Fig. 2—Female genitalia ventral view. Fig. 3—Male genitalia dorsal view. Fig. 4—Male genitalia ventral view, hypandrium in place. Fig. 5—Male genitalia ventral view, hypandrium removed to expose structures beneath. Fig. 6—Fastigium dorsal view. Fig. 7—Fastigium lateral view.

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Legs. Thickly clothed with short setae. Fore and middle legs subequal in length, with nind leg 1.6 length of fore or middle legs. Sexual dimorphism absent. All femora sulcate ventrally. Fore and middle femora unarmed beneath, hind femora bearing a variable number of linear spines beneath; fore, middle and hind tibiae armed with variable numbers of linear spines; no linear spines occur on fore, middle or hind tarsi (Table III). Apical spines constant in number, as for generic description. Ratios of length of legs to length of body: fore leg, 2.2:1; middle leg, 2:1; hind leg, 3.4:1.

Table III—Variability in Number of Linear Spines on the Legs
Pallidoplectron turneri n. sp.
Arith. Mean Std Dev Number of Specimens.
Prolat. Fore Femur 0–0 0–0 19–19
Retrolat. Inf. 0–0 0–0 19–19
Prolat. Fore Tibia 1.9–2 0.74–0.41 19–19
Retrolat. Inf. 2–2 0–0 19–19
Prolat. Fore Tarsus 0–0 0–0 19–19
Retrolat. 0–0 0–0 19–19
Prolat. Mid. Femur 0–0 0–0 19–19
Retrolat. Inf. 0–0 0–0 19–19
Prolat. Mid. Tibia 0–0 0–0 19–19
Retrolat. Sup. 0–0 0–0 19–19
Prolat. Mid. Tibia 2–2 0–0 19–19
Retrolat. Inf. 2–2 0–0 19–19
Prolat. Mid. Tarsus 0–0 0–0 19–19
Retrolat. 0–0 0–0 19–19
Prolat. Post. Femur 3.5–3.3 0.84–1.1 19–17
Retrolat. Inf. 0.05–0.2 0.72–0.31 19–17
Prolat. Post. Tibia 34.2–34.1 3.59–4.02 19–17
Retrolat. Sup. 36.8–36.4 4.09–3.02 19–17
Prolat. Post. Tarsus 0–0 0–0 19–17
Retrolat. 1 Sup. 0–0 0–0 19–17
Prolat. Post. Tarsus 0–0 0–0 19–17
Retrolat. 2 Sup. 0–0 0–0 19–17

Genitalia. Female: Suranal plate, Fig. 1 (SAP), concave laterally, with terminal margin slightly emarginate and bearing two groups of setae. Subgenital plate, Fig. 2 (SGP), concave laterally, terminal margin slightly emarginate; whole plate very sparsely clothed with setae. Male: Suranal plate, Fig. 3 (SPL), concave laterally, slightly emarginate terminally. Subgenital plate (hypandrium), Fig. 4 (H), notched laterally 0.2 up from proximal border, swelling into a lobe medially; the well-developed median keel thickly clothed with setae; rest of plate sparsely clothed with setae; ventral surface with lateral margins clothed with setae; medianly it swells into a large bottle-shaped lobe, tapering proximally to a narrow neck bearing two small tubercles; from this lobe extend two lateral lobes fused proximally to the lateral margins of the plate. Two styli, Fig. 4 (S), thickly clothed with short setae, length of styli being 0.33 length of sternite IX (S IX). Subgenital plate covers genitalia. Parameres, Fig. 5 (P), small, broad at base, tapering to a point, 1.4 longer than broad, thickly clothed with setae. Pseudosternite, Fig. 5 (PD), compressed dorso-ventrally, twice as broad as long; lateral margin convex, but notched medianly; distal margin rounded but emarginate medianly. From proximal end to 0.66 length of pseudosternite, a chitinous flap overlies pseudosternite and is fused to it laterally 0.5 up from proximal border. Penis not visible Paraprocts absent.

Locality. Waitomo Caves (type locality), coll. A. M. Richards, D. K. Turner.

Types. Holotype male, Allotype female and Paratype male in Auckland Institute and Museum Collection. Paratype male and female in British Museum (Natural History) Collection.

Acknowledgments

I should like to thank Dr. J. T. Salmon for his assistance during the writing of this paper. I also wish to thank Dr. R. R. Forster, Director Otago Museum, then of Canterbury Museum, for permission to examine the holotype of Pachyrhamma longipes; Dr. R. A. Falla, Director Dominion Museum, for allowing me to examine specimens in the Hudson Collection and in the Dominion Museum Collection; and.

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Mr. E. G. Turbott, Assistant Director Canterbury Museum, then of the Auckland Institute and Museum, for permission to examine the Auckland Museum Collection.

Literature Cited

Buller, W., 1895. On the Wetas, a Group of Orthopterous Insects Inhabiting New Zealand; with Descriptions of Two New Species. Trans. N.Z. Inst., 27, pp. 145–147.

Colenso, W, 1887. A Description of a large and new species of Orthopterous Insect of the Genus Hemideina Walker. Trans. N.Z. Inst., 19, pp. 145–147.

Hutton, F. W., 1897. The Stenopelmatidae of New Zealand. Trans. N.Z. Inst., 29, pp. 208–242; Pl. XII, Figs. 11, 11a; Pl. XIII, Fig. 11b. (See pp. 229–230.)

Richards, A. M., 1954. The Systematics and Ecology of the Genus Macropathus Walker, 1869 (Orthoptera, Rhaphidophoridae). Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., 82, pp. 739–755.

—— 1958. Revision of the Rhaphidophoridae (Orthoptera) of New Zealand. Part 1. The Rhaphidophoridae of the Chatham Islands 1954 Expedition. Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., 85, pp. 263–274.

—— 1958. Revision of the Rhaphidophoridae (Orthoptera) of New Zealand. Part 2. The Genus Macropathus Walker in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) Collection, Trans. Roy. Soc. N.Z., 85, pp. 465–470.

Walker, F., 1869. Catalogue of Dermaptera Saltatoria and Supplement to the Blattariae in the Collection of the British Museum. London.

Miss A. M. Richards, Ph.D.

,
Plant Diseases Division, Department of Scientific and Industrial Research,
Auckland, N. Z.

Index to Tables

  • Arith. mean—Arithmetic mean.

  • Std. Dev.—Standard Deviation.

  • Prolat.—Piolateral margin.

  • Retrolat.—Retrolateral margin.

  • Sup.—Superior.

  • Inf.—Inferior.

  • Mid.—Middle.

  • Post.—Posterior.

Index to Text-Figures 1–3

  • B—basivalvula.

  • BC—basal segment of cercus.

  • C—cercus.

  • DE—ductus ejaculatorius.

  • DV—dorsal valve.

  • E—endapophysis.

  • EP—endoparamere.

  • FCA—feebly chitinised arch connecting rami.

  • H—hypandrium (subgenital plate male).

  • IA—intersegmental apodeme.

  • MR—muscle attached to ramus.

  • MT IX—membrane of tergite IX.

  • P—paramere (ectoparamere).

  • P VII, P VIII, P IX—pleurite VII, VIII, IX.

  • PD—pseudosternite.

  • PM—perianal membrane.

  • PN—Penis.

  • PP—paraproct.

  • RP—ramus of pseudosternite.

  • S—stylus.

  • S VII, S VIII, S IX—sternite VII, VIII, IX.

  • SAP—suranal plate female.

  • SGP—subgenital plate female.

  • SPI—spiracle.

  • SPL—suranal plate, male.

  • T VII, T VIII, T IX, T X—tergite VII, VIII, IX, X.

  • TV—tube of vesicula seminalis.

  • 1 VF—first valvifer.

  • 2 VF—second valvifer.

  • VV—ventral valve.