Detailed Descriptions with Measurements of Alate and Soldier
Alate. Text-fig. 3, Fig. 9..
Colour: Dark brownish black except the labrum, which is a lighter brown, and the clypeus, which is white. Head as in nymphs, width 1.55 to 1.60, length 1.00 to 1.20. Length including labrum 1.45 to 1.65; labrum 0.45 to 0.47 long by 0.41 wide; clothed with fine short bristles with longer bristles on the anterior edge; clypeus (Text-fig. 2, Fig. 4, number 2); membranous but with a few fine short hairs; mandibles (Text-fig. 2, Fig. 9, B), the left mandible is 0.57 long by 0.54 wide and has 4 sharp, conical teeth and a basal grinding area about one-third the length of the total grinding face of the mandible. The right mandible is 0.45 long and 0.51 wide and has 3 prominent conical teeth, the second one with a very small tooth on its upper surface near the base. A grinding area is present on the basal third of the mandible. Maxilla and labium (Text-fig. 2, Fig. 11) Maxilla: Cardo 0.3 long with very few hairs on outer surface; stipes 0.35 long with few hairs on outer surface; palp with 5 segments becoming progressively longer towards the distal segment, which is longest. All but the basal segment are profusely bristled. The lacinia is 0.50 long and has 12 to 28 stout bristles on its inner face and distally it terminates in two sharp points. The galea is 0.52 long and consists of a basal segment subtending a long distal segment. Labium: glossae 0.25 long without bristles, paraglossdae 0.26 long with very short bristles. Palp of 3 segments progressively longer towards the distal segment, which is longest. All segments are profusely bristled. Prementum 0.4 long and covered with very short bristles. Gulamentum oval-shaped 0.93 long by 0.52 wide with moderately long bristles. Hypopharynx (Text-fig. 1, Fig. 10) anteriorly clothed with very short bristles. Antennae 15 to 17 segments (commonly 15), third segment very small. Segments progressively larger from the fourth towards the distal end, profusely bristled, largest bristles towards the centre of each segment. Frons with two median depressions; fenestrae large, conspicuous and slightly crescent-shaped; epicranial suture distinct; eyes large (0.47 in longest diameter) and prominent; ocelli are absent; head with few fine bristles. Thorax: Pronotum with anterior edge slightly concave, a small median depression, and clothed with moderately long bristles. Lateral edges slope back to a somewhat rounded posterior edge much shoter than the anterior one and having a small median depression. The longitudinal midline of the pronotum is slightly grooved; length, 0.55 to 0.65, width 0.86 to 0.93. Mesonotum and metanotum with posterior edges bluntly conical and each sclerite laterally recessed for the wing stumps. when the wings are folded Thorax length 2.38 to 2.53. Ventrally and laterally the thoracic segments are protected by sclerites (Text-fig. 2, Figs. 4 and 8). Forewing (Text-fig. 4, Fig. 3B) : Subcosta rudimentary, radius about one-third the length of the wing and extending beyond the second branching of the radial sector, radial sector parallel to the anterior margin of the wing and having 6 to 9 short diagonal branches to the costa, the distal one usually terminating just above the extremity of the wing, the media slightly above the mid-line of the wing with 3 to 7 diagonal branches, 2 to 4 of which branch again before meeting the posterior margin of the wing distal to the cubitus. The last branch of the media terminates below the distal extremity of the wing, the cubitus almost as long as the radius and having 3 to 6 diagonal branches to the posterior margin, anal rudimentary. The wing membrane is clothed with minute stellate micrasters. Spines are widely spaced except towards the wing extremity, where they occur closer together on the wing margin. Spines are situated on the veins of the wing. The basal suture is concave. The anterior wing stump is 0.80 long on the anterior margin and 0.53 long on the posterior margin. Full length of wing with wing stumps 10.72 to 11.15, width 2.85 to 3.20. Hindwing (Text-fig. 4, Fig. 3A): Subcosta as in forewing, radius as in forewing but typically gives rise to media just distal to the basal suture, media as in forewing but only 1 to 3 of its branches branch again before meeting the posterior margin of the
wing; cubitus often longer than in forewing with 3 to 6 branches running to the posterior margin of the wing. In other features the hindwing resembles the fore-wing, except that spines are fewer and more widely spaced. Length 9.92 to 10.75, width 2.56 to 2.85. The abdomen (Text-fig. 2, Fig. 3) consists of 10 segments, the first 8 each having a pair of lateral spiracles (B) near the postero-lateral edges of the tergites. The 10 tergites are distinguishable. The first sternite is lacking. In the male alate the remainder of the sternites are visible and easily distinguished; the ninth subtends a pair of subanal styles (Text-fig. 4, Fig. 12B), and the tenth subtends a pair of five-jointed cerci (Text-fig. 4, Fig. 12A). In the female, sternites 2 to 7 are distinguishable, the eighth and ninth are reduced and modified, being covered by sternite 7 (Text-fig. 4, Fig. 12B). Sternite 10 is visible and subtends a pair of five-jointed cerci as in the male. The majority of the thoracic and abdominal sclerites have short to moderately long bristles or hairs, the greater numbers of which occur towards the posterior margins of the sclerites. Text-fig. 4, Fig. 12A shows a ventral view of the 7th, 8th, 9th and 10th abdominal segments of a male alate with ventral subanal styles and latero-ventral cerci. Text-fig. 4, Fig. 12B shows the corresponding part of a female alate with sternites 6, 7 and 10 visible, the absence of styles and the presence of the jointed cerci. Abdomen length 3.25 to 4.25; width 1.46 to 1.83. The legs (Text-fig. 1, Fig. 11A) are short, stout, and covered with fine, moderately long bristles. Spines occur at the extremities of the tibiae, 3 on each of the prothoracic and mesothoracic legs and 2 on each of the metathoracic legs. Tarsi are four-jointed, the distal segment having a pair of claws without empodia. Size of dealates: Length from anterior margin of the labrum 7.05 to 8.32.
The Soldier. Text-fig. 2, Figs. 7 and 12..
Colour, rich creamy white thorax and abdomen, head reddish brown, large, parallel-sided and dorso-ventrally flattened with dorsal and ventral surfaces parallel. Head broadly oval in transverse section, very dark reddish brown anteriorly, gradually shading back to a yellowish posterior. More profusely bristled than in alates and nymphs. Length to clypeofrontal suture 1.75 to 2.15, length to tip of mandibles 3.05 to 4.89, width 1.18 to 1.59. Labrum (Text-fig. 1, Fig. 8) : 0.73 long by 0.51 wide, truncate anterior margin with 8 to 12 long bristles, lateral margins sloping outwards for about three-quarters their length then turning sharply in to the b [ unclear: ] sal margin, which is about 1.3 times as long as the anterior margin. The dorsal surface has short, fine bristles. Clypeus (Text-fig. 1, Fig. 8) : Membranous and without bristles. Mandibles (Text-fig. 2, Fig. 10), stout and elongate, almost black at the apices, shading back to dark reddish brown at their bases. The outer margins slightly convex, inner margin of the right mandible distinctly more concave than that of the left mandible. The right mandible has an apical tooth, a second broadly conical tooth situated about one-third the length of the mandible from the apex, a third broader topped tooth about half-way along the mandible and a basal grinding area. The left mandible has 3 large conical teeth, one at the apex, another just above one-third the length of the mandible from the apex, and another just above half-way. A smaller conical tooth occurs just below half-way, followed by a long basal grinding area. Mandible length: 1.50 to 1.85, width 0.61 to 0.68. Maxilla and labium (Text-fig. 1, Fig. 7) : Maxilla as for alates; labium differs from alate pattern in the shape of the gulamentum, which in the soldier is narrower and more elongate. Labium length from the apex of paraglossa to the base of the gulamentum 2.20 to 3.12; gulamentum 1.77 to 2.70 long, 0.51 to 0.73 wide at widest point. Usually without bristles. Hypo-pharynx as for alates. Antennae: 14 to 19 segments (usually 15 or 16), form as in nymphs (Text-fig. 2, Fig. 1), with a light band of brownish pigment encircling central region of each segment from the third to the distal one. The segments are clothed in bristles of varying length. Frons almost parallel to the ventral surface of the head; epicranial suture distinct; eyes small and pigmented; ocelli and fenestrae absent. Thorax as in fifth and sixth instar nymphs. Pronotum 0.65 to 0.75 long,
Text-fig. 4.—Fig. 1—Three year old queen. A, dorsal view; B, ventral view of head and thorax. Fig. 2— Ventral view of posterior abdominal segments of first instar nymph. Fig. 3—Dorsal view of right wings of alate. B, foreming; A, hindwing, showing basic pattern of venation. 1, Basal suture; 2, Subcosta; 3, Radius; 4, Radial sector; 5, Media; 6, Cubitus; 7, Anal. Fig. 4—Ventral view of right forewing. Fig. 5—Ventral view of right hindwing. Fig. 6—Ventral view of left forewing. Fig. 7—Ventral view of left hindwing. (N.B. —Wings in Figs. 4 to 7 are from one alate which came from the same colony as that from which Fig. 3 wings were drawn.) Fig. 8—Dorsal view of left anterior wing stump. Fig. 9—Dorsal view of left posterior wing stump. Fig. 10— Dorsal view of section of leading edge of the distal part of the forewing, showing spines and stellate micrasters. Fig. 12—Ventral view of posterior abdominal segments of alates—(A) the male and (B) the female. Fig. 13—(A) cercus; (B) style.
0.98 to 1.21 wide, always much narrower than the head. Abdomen as in alates, with the same differences in the posterior sternites of male and female soldiers (Text-fig. 4, Fig. 12, A and B). Legs, cerci, and styles as in alates. Length of soldier 8.02 to 10.05. All castes and stadia have the majority of the exoskeletal sclerites of the body clothed with short to moderately long bristles. Thoracic and abdominal appendages are similarly bristled. The head has relatively few bristles except on the palps, laciniae, paraglossae, labrum and gulamentum of the mouthparts. The gulamentum of the soldier caste lacks bristles.
Emergency Soldiers Text-fig. 2, Fig. 14A and B.
They are essentially the same as the soldiers described above, but usually much smaller (5.71 to 7.22 in length). The head sometimes varies, having the sides slightly convex instead of parallel. The mandibles follow the characteristic pattern. Soldiers from the same colony may show all ranges of variation.
Primary Female Reproductive. Text-fig. 4, Fig. 1.
Form as in the female alate without wings. The abdomen enlarges with age and increased egg-laying capacity. Size range: Length, 10.00 to 11.00 (same as alate for first year after swarm). Width, 2.24 to 2.85 (same as alate for first year after swarm). Colour: Brownish black except for labrum (brown) and clypeus (white).
Primary Male Reproductive..
Form and size range as in male alate already described.
Brachypterous Female Reproductive. Text-fig. 3, Fig. 10B.
Form as in seventh instar nymph. Wing buds usually rudimentary, scale-like, and small. Abdomen as for primary female reproductive. Size range: Length, 9.65 to 11.25. Width, 2.10 to 2.65. Colour: Creamy white.
Apterous Female Reproductive. Text-fig. 3, Fig. 10A.
Form as in fifth instar nymph. Abdomen as in primary female reproductive. Colour: Creamy white. Size range: Length, 8.50 to 11.14. Width, 2.00 to 2.80.