Minutes of the Annual Meeting of the Council of the Royal Society of New Zealand, Held on May 19, 1959.
The Annual Meeting. of the Council of the Royal Society of New Zealand was held on Tuesday, May 19, 1959, commencing at 10 a.m.
Chair. The President, Professor R. S. Allan, was in the chair.
Representation and Roll-Call. The following responded to the roll-call: The President, Professor R. S. Allan; Vice-Presidents, Dr. J. K. Dixon and Dr. F. G. Soper; Immediate Past President, Professor L. H. Briggs; Government Representatives—Dr. G. Archey, Mr. F. R. Callaghan, Dr. R. A. Falla, Dr. C. A. Fleming; Wellington Branch, Mr. K. R. Allen; Auckland Institute, Mr. S. G. Brooker, Dr. A. W. B. Powell; Canterbury Branch, Professor E. Percival; Otago Branch, Dr. J. Murray, Dr. F. G. Soper; Waikato Scientific Association, Mr. F. Dorofaeff. Rotorua Branch, Mr. J. Healy; Hawke's Bay Branch, Mr. N. L. Elder; Nelson Branch, Dr. H. O. Askew; Southland Branch, Mr. R. W. Willett; Co-opted Member, Dr. J. T. Salmon; Fellows' Representatives, Professor C. A. Cotton, Sir Ernest Marsden.
Apologies. His Excellency the Governor-General, Lord Cobham, Honorary Patron of the Society, regretted that as he was in residence in Auckland he would be unable to attend. The Hon. P N. Holloway, Minister of Scientific and Industrial Research, who had intended to be present, regretted that a cabinet sub-committee had been called and it prevented his attendance. Dr. M. A. F. Barnett, who was overseas, Mr. S. Cory-Wright, who had been called out of Wellington, and Dr. R. S. Duff, who was attending the Archaeological Conference, apologised for absence.
President's Remarks. In his opening remarks the President welcomed members and referred to the loss the Society had sustained by the death of three Honorary Members as follows:—
Visgount Bledisloe. (1867–1958) After being educated at Eton and University College, Oxford, and having a distinguished career as Chancery Barrister and Conveyancer, 1894–1910, Viscount Bledisloe entered Parliament. He was Parliamentary Secretary to the Ministry of Food, 1916–17, and Parliamentary Secretary, Ministry of Agriculture, 1924–28. He came to this Dominion as Governor-General, 1930–35. After his return to Great Britain he continued a very notable career. His interest in scientific matters was shown in innumerable ways—e.g., in 1939 he was President of the Museum's Association; in 1946 he was President of the Royal Agricultural Society of England, of which he was Silver Medallist and Life Member by Examination, and Honorary Gold Medallist in 1947. His impact on agricultural science in New Zealand was particularly noteworthy; he was a great and beloved Governor-General. We do well to honour his memory, for it was during his term as Governor-General that we received the gracious permission of King George V to title ourselves the “Royal Society of New Zealand”.
Richard Benedikt Goldschmidt (1878–1958). Professor Goldschmidt held the Chair of Zoology (1909–13) in Munich, and there gave the first lecture course in genetics in Germany. He was invited to the newly established Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Biological Research in Berlin and became director of this famous research institute in 1921. In 1936 he emigrated to the United States to become Professor of Zoology at the University of California. His chief interests have been in problems of genetics and evolution; the concept of macroevolution was elaborated by him in his book “The Material Basis of Evolution”.
He was a distinguished, polished and scholarly scientist, with great independence of mind, and possessed a tremendous spread of cultural interests. He visited
New Zealand in 1947, and those of us who were fortunate enough to see something of him then will never forget his charm or his scholarship.
Sir Douglas Mawson (1882–1958). Sir Douglas had been Professor of Geology and Mineralogy in the University of Adelaide since 1920. Few Australian geologists have had sinch a distinguished career, but his geological work lacked the glamour of his record as an explorer. He joined Shackleton's Antarctic Expedition in 1907; accompanied Sir Edgeworth David in the ascent of Mount Erebus, and in the journey to the South Magnetic Pole in 1908. He was leader of the Australasian Antarctic Expedition (1911–14); of the British, Australian and New Zealand Antarctic Expedition (1929–31). He was President of the Australia and New Zealand Association for the Advancement of Science, 1932–37.
His record as a scientific explorer ranks high in the annals of Antarctica.
Professor Allan then referred to the death of a Fellow:
Dr. John Henderson (1880–1959). Dr. John Henderson, formerly Director of the N.Z. Geological Survey (1928), was born in Dunedin, and after a brilliant career at the University of Otago, became Director of the Reefton School of Mines (1903–11). He joined the N.Z. Geological Survey as Mining Geologist in 1911. He was elected to our Fellowship in 1929, and was Hector Medallist in 1945, the year before retiring from the Survey. Dr. Henderson has left an enduring impact on the geology of New Zealand; his careful, thorough work in the field and in the office won the respect of his colleagues, and his quiet, unassuming dignity and his kindliness commanded the affection of those who knew him.
The Council stood in respect to the memory of Viscount Bledisloe, Professor Goldschmidt, Sir Douglas Mawson and Dr. Henderson.
The President then went on to say:
“Regarding the Presidential Address, I am concerned about the procedural position, and I suggest that the Vice-Presidents and the Standing Committee might give some thought to it.
“I have elected to deal with the status of science in the Dominion and with the role of this Society in the scientific life of New Zealand.
“Briefly, I will suggest that there is an urgent need in the Dominion for a body competent to provide critical, constructive and independent views on scientific problems in New Zealand and on Government policy where it involves scientific and technological knowledge. I believe that the Royal Society should be this body: that it should function as the voice of science and scientists in New Zealand.
“I argue that if it is to play this role, it must first give thought to some internal weaknesses. I put forward my view that only a Council of Fellows would command the confidence of scientists in general or of the Universities and the Government. If this reform were to be adopted it would be necessary to widen the scope of the Fellowship to provide for the election of persons who have rendered conspicuous service to the cause of science or are such that their election would be of signal benefit to the Society.
“You will appreciate that I am dealing with domestic matters, but with domestic matters considered in a much wider context.
“Now my concern is this: the ideas I am about to put forward will be heard first by a few members of a single branch of the Society but not by the Council as a Council; and the issues I raise cannot be considered by Council for at least six months.
“It would be preferable, I think, when a President elects to deal with domestic issues, that his views should be delivered to Council and discussed by Council during the same meeting of the Council. This is the issue which I think the Standing Committee might discuss.
“Now in a sense I have been guilty of side-stepping this Council. At the November meeting in Napier I sought and obtained your authority to co-operate with me in the consideration of the problems I have raised. This I propose to do, starting tomorrow, and if these distinguished scientists agree that my proposals have merit, I will go ahead, with invitations to selected Fellows (or groups of Fellows) to co-operate on particular facets of the total situation.
“In short, the preparation of a report on the status of science in the Dominion, while an activity of some past and present officers of the Society and of some of its Fellows, is the responsibility of your President and not of this Council.
“I am suggesting that the report on completion should be presented to this Council in, say May, 1960.
“I wish to make it quite clear, however, that when my Address is published in the Proceedings of the Society and so made generally available, I will welcome constructive criticism from members of this Council, from its Standing Committee or from the Branches.”
The President concluded: “I would be failing in my plain duty if I did not express my deep appreciation of the labours of the Standing Committee and of Dr. J. K. Dixon, Vice-President, who presided over all meetings of the Standing Committee. This body does a tremendous amount of work for the Society: it merits our warmest thanks. Like many other Presidents before me, I would also like to pay tribute to the devoted and efficient services rendered so unobtrusively but effectively by the Society's Secretary.”
New and Retired Members of the Council. The President paid a tribute to Mr. O. H. Keyes, for some years representative of the Otago Branch, and to Mr. R. R. White, who for the last three years had represented the Waikato Scientific Association, and thanked them for their services to the Royal Society of New Zealand while on the Council. He then welcomed Dr. J. Murray, the new representative of the Otago Branch, and Mr. F. Dorofaeff, representative of the Waikato Scientific Association, and trusted that they would enjoy their term of office on the Council.
Election of Fellows. The Convener of the Fellowship Selection Committee, Dr. F. G Soper, wrote stating that the Selection Committee recommended that Professor W. E. Adams, Dr. E. E. Chamberlain, Mr. J. T. Holloway, and Professor L. R. Richardson be elected Fellows.
On the motion of Dr. Soper, seconded by Dr. Salmon, the recommendation of the Committee was adopted, and Professor W. E. Adams, Dr. E. E. Chamberlain, Mr. J. T. Holloway, and Professor L. R. Richardson were elected Fellows of the Royal Society of New Zealand.
Hutton Award. Professor C. A. Cotton, Convener of the Hutton Award Committee, wrote: “The Committee unanimously recommends that the Hutton Medal be awarded to Dr. L. R. Richardson for Research on the Zoology of Cook Strait.”
On the motion of the President, seconded by Dr. Dixon, the recommendation was adopted, and Professor L. R. Richardson was awarded the Hutton Medal.
Hector Award. Dr. A. W. B. Powell, Convener of the Hector Award Committee, wrote: “The committee proposes the name of Professor Howard Barraclough Fell for the award of the Hector Medal and Prize for outstanding researches in Echinoderm embryology and systematics.”
On the motion of the President, seconded by Dr. Soper, the report was adopted, and Professor H. B. Fell was awarded the Hector Medal and Prize.
T. K. Sidey Summer-time Award. Professor A. G. McLellan, Convener of the Award Committee, wrote:
“The T. K. Sidey Summer-time Award Committee recommends unanimously that Dr. J. H. Piddington, of Australia, be awarded this prize. His
research work, as described in his submitted material, is in a field required by the regulations of the award, and is of such distinction that, although Dr. Piddington is probably not connected with New Zealand by birth, education or research work, he should have the award. This is in accordance with the regulations.
“In its deliberation, the committee discussed the conditions under which the award is advertised and made, and, in particular, felt that it could be that a worker, with no connection to New Zealand, could apply, whose work was superior to those applicants who have the requisite connection with New Zealand but who is not the most distinguished international scientist in the appropriate field.
“The committee therefore considers it would be better for the reputation and worth of the award if applications were called for from scientists who have done a major part of the research on which their application is based, in New Zealand, but if no such applicant were considered worthy of the award, the prize should be offered (i.e., without application) to some scientist, in the appropriate field, of high international repute, preference being given to one born in New Zealand or educated here.
“Such a procedure would satisfy the spirit and meaning of the regulations and would be appropriate at this time when the quality of such scientific work in New Zealand has reached a good standard. A secondary result of this procedure would be to encourage a still higher standard.
“The committee would emphasize, however, that, in the present award, they are satisfied that Dr. Piddington's work is of the highest international standard in his field.”
On the motion of the President, seconded by Dr. Salmon, it was resolved that the T. K. Sidey Summertime Medal and Prize be awarded to Dr. J. H. Piddington, of Radiophysics Division, C S.I.R.O, Sydney, and that the recommendations suggested by the Award Committee be adopted.
Hamilton Award. Dr. C. A. Fleming, convener of the Hamilton Award Committee, wrote: “The single entry for the Hamilton Award received is of such high merit that the Award Committee agreed unanimously that the award should be granted to the applicant. Accordingly, we recommend that the Hamilton Memorial Prize for 1959 be awarded to Mr. Graeme R. Stevens, M.Sc., now at Sedgwick Museum, Cambridge, for his published work on New Zealand geology and geomorphology.”
On the motion of Dr. Fleming, seconded by Dr. Falla, it was resolved that the Hamilton Prize be awarded to Mr. Graeme R. Stevens.
Vote of Thanks to Award Committees. On the motion of Dr. Dixon, seconded by Mr. Callaghan, a very hearty vote of thanks was accorded the Award Committees and the Fellowship Selection Committee for the important work carried out by them in recommending the award of the various medals and prizes and the election of Fellows.
Honorary Members. It was resolved that two vacancies should be filled in 1960.
Fellowship R.S.N.Z. One vacancy in the Fellowship caused by the death of Dr. Henderson was declared to be filled in 1960.
Report of Representative on Great Barrier Reef Committee
No official communications from the Great Barrier Reef Committee have reached your representative since the last report was handed in (May, 1958).
Unofficial communications show that the present Marine Station is functioning well, and that the Committee is endeavouring to make an all-out attempt to raise funds to enlarge the Station and provide a small sea-going vessel.
Beryl I. Brewin.
On the motion of the President, seconded by Dr. Dixon, the report of the Great Barrier Reef Committee submitted by Dr. Beryl Brewin was adopted.
Report of Representatives on Board of Trustees of National Art Gallery and Dominion Museum
It is a pleasure to be able to report that during the year some staff members of the Dominion Museum received some recognition of their work by being given higher status by the Public Service Commission. Nevertheless, salaries and status of the staff are by no means as high as we think they should be. Constant pressure is exerted by the Management Committee to bring about improvements, but with only a moderate degree of success. The vexed question of the fixed establishment for staff has not yet been solved, for notwithstanding the Committee's recommendation of over a year ago that the total professional staff should be increased by seven, nothing has been done. Your representatives lose no opportunity at Board meetings of pressing for a revision of the establishment fixed in 1950–51, but the consequent resolutions of the Board seem to get lost in the administrative machine.
Proposals for constitutional reform were given a new lease of life late in 1958. The Management Committee of the National Art Gallery withdrew its opposition to proposals made in the previous year and the Board then approved of the Museum Management Committee's preparing a detailed scheme for submission to the Board. The first meeting of the Committee, in 1959, gave some time to draft proposals, and in the light of the discussion a more detailed scheme is to be prepared for a later meeting.
It is expected that the process of seeking autonomy for the Museum will be a long and difficult one, but we are convinced that only by having direct control of finance and staff will the Committee be enabled to allow the Museum full scope for its activities.
The question of building extensions to house the constantly increasing acquisitions has also been raised during the year. The Board has been asked to consider in principle the functions of the Museum in respect of war relics and technological and historical material, and to indicate what should be done in providing additional accommodation in the light of the decisions it arrives at on the policy to be followed by the Museum.
Notwithstanding the administrative handicaps that are implied in the comments earlier in this report, the staff of the Museum continue to deal with a great many enquiries from other scientists and the public, to assist in the educational work carried on by the Education Officer and his assistant, and to perform a great deal of solid scientific work in the field and laboratory.
H. C. Mcqueen
C A. Fleming
On the motion of Dr. Fleming, the report of the representatives of the Royal Society on the Board of Trustees of the National Art Gallery and Dominion Museum was adopted.
Report of Representative on National Parks Authority
Four meetings of the Authority under the chairmanship of Mr. D. N. R. Webb, Director-General of Lands, were held during the year ended March 31, 1959. One of the meetings, July 4–7, was held at the Chateau Tongariro, the occasion being taken to confer with the Tongariro National Park Board, with representatives of Mountain Clubs and other organisations interested in National Parks, and to inspect various portions of the Park itself.
Under the National Parks Act of 1952, the Authority is responsible for eight National Parks totalling some 3,900,000 acres or 6,083 square miles. There have been slight alterations made to the boundaries of some of the Parks, mainly for simplification purposes. A suggestion has been submitted for a considerable extension of the Mt. Cook National Park to include a large area on the western slopes of the Southern Alps.
The funds available for all the Parks in the financial year ended March 31, 1959, amounted to £44,200. This sum included subsidies and comprised £22,710 for annual maintenance and £21,490 for capital expenditure. It is hoped that funds amounting to £50,000 will be available in the 1959–60 financial year.
Urewera National Park 119,614 acres Vote £915 As yet a National Park Board has not been established, but a number of honorary rangers have been appointed Adjustment of lease of a number of properties along the margin of the Park and problems concerned with access to timber producing areas on private and Maori lands have been the main activities affecting this National Park A survey of noxious animals was made in certain sections of this Park and revealed that deer, pigs, goats and opossums were constituting an increasing menace despite the fact that the areas were being shot over by private hunters.
Tongariro National Park. 161,538 acres. Vote £11,400. The popularity of the northern slopes of Ruapehu for skiing has led to the very rapid establishment of 30 alpine clubs which have erected club houses on the slopes beyond the terminus of Bruce Road. The ready access to this area now available by the improvement in Bruce Road, often permits of a large influx of visitors in addition to those who are club members. To meet these conditions the Park
Board has been faced with the provision of car parking areas, storage, toilet and shelter facilities both at Whakapapa and at the mountain terminal of Bruce Road. This type of problem is likely to demand considerable attention by the Park Board for some time yet, though excellent progress has been made and the co-operation of the mountain clubs has been appreciated.
In view of the “urbanisation” of the Chateau area, the Authority visited the Ohakune mountain road approach to Blyth Hut with a view to seeing whether this side of Ruapehu should accommodate the increasing demand for skiing and other facilities. Although Ohakune interests have done splendid work in improving road access, this has not yet extended sufficiently far to make the southern snowfields sufficiently accessible to permit of ready use and development.
The Board is planning the reservation and demarcation of Wilderness Areas and also for a botanical garden in close vicinity of the Chateau.
It issues a six–monthly Newsletter which provides much interesting information to visitors and during the year the Lands and Survey Department has issued an excellent folded map of the Park with a great fund of information in letterpress.
Egmont National Park. 80,681 acres. Vote, £5,850. Hotel problems have been the main concern of this Park Board during the year and marked improvements in accommodation facilities have been made. The Board has prepared a progressive plan for a five-year development design to improve the amenities of the Park.
Abel Tasman National Park. 40,622 acres. Vote, £2,540 Improved facilities have been provided at Totaranui, and the question of access at the southern Marahau approach to this Park is receiving attention.
Nelson Lakes National Park. 139,833 acres. Vote, £6,423 During the year the Nelson Lakes National Parks Board was established and a good deal of attention has been devoted to problems concerning previous rights and privileges existing in the Lake Rotoiti area. At this location a ranger's house has been erected.
Arthur's Pass National Park. 239,152 acres. Vote, £5,320. The activities and interest in this Park resemble in many respects those of the Tongariro National Park. Skiing is a predominant interest on which much time, money and effort are spent by a number of alpine organisations. At Arthurs Pass itself there are often large influxes of visitors for short periods for which amenities are being gradually provided. An area has been prepared for a Museum and Hall, the erection of which will be proceeded with during 1959. The Park Board has produced a very attractive handbook dealing with the scenic and natural history features, tracks, maps, etc., of the Park. A botanical garden is maintained close to the main road at Arthur's Pass township.
Mt. Cook National Park. 151,800 acres. Vote, £5,720. The Board has been largely concerned with getting its headquarters established at the Hermitage, where housing for rangers has had to be built. An alpine garden is in process of being formed in close proximity to the Hermitage and the compilation of a handbook is in progress.
Fiordland National Park. 2,959,793 acres. Vote, £5,247. The Fiordland National Park Board was officially established during the year and is immediately faced with a large number of problems in a most difficult area. With the small staff available and even with every assistance from honorary rangers, it is impossible to see how a really effective control can be exercised over such a large area of such difficult terrain and wet climate. It is, however, worthy of mention that more scientific attention has been devoted to this Park recently than to all the others. In view of representations made by the Royal Society at its 1958 Annual Meeting concerning destruction brought about by the grazing of natural tussock grassland in the Eglinton Valley, the Authority asked Professor L. W. McCaskill to visit, survey and report on this area. In his report Professor McCaskill considers the Conservation Committee's report to be erroneous and recommends continuation of the present policy in regard to grazing leases with annual checks of the effect of the grazing on the vegetation. The New Zealand Deerstalkers' Association reported details of the surveys of the occurrence of red deer and wapiti made by its members in the Park during 1958. The Authority is considering the efficacy of the method of control of numbers of these animals as adopted by the Association.
General Mr. R. W. Cleland, formerly park ranger at Arthur's Pass, has been appointed Supervisor of National Parks, in which capacity his duties will involve training of rangers, assisting Park Boards with their development programmes, and advising the Authority in numerous matters arising in connection with National Park administration.
Scientific Matters. The Botany Division and the Geological Survey of D.S.I.R. have undertaken to provide detailed reports on the botany and geology of all National Parks progressively in future years and to assist in the compilation of the smaller handbooks of each park which the Authority intends to have published.
Investigations of the Takahe continue, Dr. Orbell having located a new colony, and the Internal Affairs Department has been successful in rearing three notornis chicks removed from the Te Anau area in the spring of 1958.
A party from the Wild Life Branch of Internal Affairs Department was successful in locating Kakapo in the Mt. Tutoko area of Fiordland National Park and in recording other fauna of that area. There was evidence that opossums existed in this locality. The Branch also surveyed bird life and animal life on the Murchison Range, Middle Fiordland, and Lake Te Anau. The Canterbury Museum Fiordland Expedition, 1958, Messrs. K. R. Sutherland and W. M. Nelson, also provided reports giving valuable information on flora and fauna of isolated areas of the Fiordland National Park.
The N.Z. Geological Survey has instituted a regular survey of glacier movements in the Mt. Cook National Park.
F. R. Callaghan,
Royal Society Representative on the National Parks Authority.
In moving the adoption of the National Parks Authority report, the Society's representative, Mr. Callaghan, emphasised the large acreage in Parks covered by the Authority. He drew attention to certain aspects of the Authority's work, and in speaking of the Arthur Pass National Park paid a tribute to the work of Professor McCaskill in the formation of a botanic garden there. In the discussion on the report Mr. Healy mentioned the milling operations taking place in the Urewera district and referred to the petition to Parliament by the Forest and Bird Protection Society asking that milling should be controlled.
The report was adopted, and Mr. Callaghan was thanked by the President for his important work on the Authority.
Report of Representative on Royal New Zealand Institute of Horticulture
Conference. The Institute held its annual conference at Timaru on February 12, 1959, the venue being chosen in relation to the South Canterbury Centennial celebrations, which included a floral exhibition and a floral procession during the same week.
An innovation this year was a short address at the end of the formal business in the afternoon by Mr. A. M. W. Greig, A.H.R.I.H. (N.Z.), Director of the Horticulture Division of the Department of Agriculture, whose subject was “A Review of Advances in Horticulture in New Zealand between the years 1952 and 1957”.
In the evening Mr. A. W. Anderson, A.H.R.I.H. (N.Z.), of Timaru, delivered the Banks Lecture on “The Botanical Exploration of Canterbury”. The lecture is published in the Institute's journal “New Zealand Plants and Gardens” 3 (2) 50–65, March, 1959.
Publications. The Institute's journal, “New Zealand Plants and Gardens” continues to maintain a high standard. This year the Publication Account, receiving 8/- from each member's subscription, plus a Government Grant, increased its credit balance by about £100.
Membership and Finance. During the year ended September 30, 1958, membership decreased from 2,205 to 1,996; part of this decrease represents a purging of the roll. In the general accounts (excluding the journal) income exceeded expenditure by £223. However, the Government makes a grant towards the expenses of conducting examinations, as well as the grant in aid of publication referred to in the last paragraph. The Institute is exploring possible ways of increasing its membership as the only means of reducing its dependence on these grants.
Horticulture Nomenclature and Registration. The Institute has been appointed International Registration Authority for cultivar names in the genera Hebe and Leptospermum, and has set up a permanent committee to handle this work, which is under the auspices of the International Union of Biological Sciences.
The Institute can act also as National Registration Authority in New Zealand for cultivar names in other genera in collaboration with specialist societies. The New Zealand Rhododendron Association has requested the Institute to act in this capacity for the genus Rhododendron, and a committee has been appointed for this purpose.
Aratiatia Rapids. The Institute exchanged correspondence with the Minister of Lands and the Minister in charge of the State Hydro-electric Department about the proposed power station and dam at Aratiatia Rapids, and a group of members of the Dominion Council inspected the working model at Gracefield. It appeared that no native vegetation of any consequence would be affected, and that the conversion of the river from continuous to intermittent flow was hardly a matter for an Institute of Horticulture. The Institute, however, has forcibly expressed to the Minister-in-Charge its concern at the relative ease with which land, previously dedicated by legislation as national reserve, is being passed over for another purpose altogether, without appropriate legislative measures being passed.
Examinations. I have continued to act as Chairman of the Institute's Examining Board. The number of examination entries increased as compared with the previous year.
The special prizes were awarded as follows:—
(a) Cockayne Gold Medal (most successful candidate completing the National Diploma in Horticulture), L. J. Metcalf, Christchurch.
(b) J. A. Campbell Memorial Prize (Intermediate Section of N.D.H.), R. Boggust, Palmerston North.
(c) David Tannock Memorial Prize (final stage Oral and Practical for N.D.H.), A. C. Morgan, Christchurch.
H. D. Gordon,
Representative on the Dominion Council Royal N.Z. Institute of Horticulture for the Royal Society of New Zealand.
On the motion of the President the report on the Council of the Royal New Zealand Institute of Horticulture presented by Professor H. D. Gordon, was adopted and Professor Gordon was thanked for his interesting report.
Report of Representative on N.Z. National Oceanographic Committee
There have been no meetings during the year. A limited amount of material dealing with overseas oceanographic matters has been circulated to members.
Applications were called for grants in aid of research, but the distribution of the notice appeared limited. Two applications were submitted. So far I have been unsuccessful in gaining an understanding of the nature of the present reference of the Committee from its distributed material.
L. R. Richardson,
Royal Society of New Zealand Representative.
Dr. Fleming, in moving the adoption of the report presented by Professor L. R. Richardson, said that the implication contained in the report required attention, and he suggested that the report should be sent to the Secretary of the National Oceanographic Committee. The report and the suggestion by Dr. Fleming were adopted.
Report of Representative on Medical Research Council
The amount of the Government grant for the current year is £95,000 which, together with balance from last year plus donations, has enabled the Council to approve a budget of approximately £108,000 for the current year, a substantial increase on last year's expenditure. Nevertheless, requests from research committees, together with necessary administrative expenses, amounted to substantially more than this sum; and it has once again been found necessary to prune requested expenditure sigificantly, especially in respect of equipment and materials. The insistent request for more funds reflects a very healthy state of activity in all fields of the Council's activities.
The retirement of Sir Charles Hercus as Dean of the Medical School, and his replacement by Dr. E. G. Sayers has necessitated a revision in the personnel of several of the research committees. Sir Charles has, however, undertaken to remain as Chairman of the Hydatid Research Committee, which has a considerably wider sponsorship than other activities of the Council. For this work accommodation has been secured in the Air Department's buildings at Taieri Aerodrome. Four professional officers and nine others are now engaged in the project; and the appointment of a pathologist is under consideration. An ambitious programme of field and laboratory studies is under way, and very satisfactory progress appears to have been made to date.
Dr. F. A. Denz, the Council's senior toxicologist, has accepted the post of Associate Professor in Chemical Pathology in the University of Otago. This has entailed a reconstruction of the Council's Toxicological Research Committee, which has been provisionally reconstituted to cover a wider field of pathology, under a new Chairman. A revised programme of research is expected to be brought forward by this Committee shortly.
The other eleven committees are all functioning actively and successfully. About sixty papers in all have been published during the year by staff or associated workers under the Council's jurisdiction.
A proposal has been approved to establish scholarships for suitable entrants to the degree of B.Med.Sc. and M.Med.Sc. This, it is hoped, will tend to attract more promising young medical students into the research field at a later stage in their careers.
Representative of the Royal Society on the Medical Research Council.
On the motion of the President, seconded by Mr. Healy, the report on the Medical Research Council presented by Dr. Bastings' representative on the Council was adopted.
Report of Representatives on Carter Observatory Board
Board. Royal Society of New Zealand: Representatives, Dr. M. A. F. Barnett, Professor D. Walker. Wellington City Council: Mr. E. P. Norman, Mr. M. A. Castle. New Zealand Government: Mr. R. G. Dick, Mr. R. C. Hayes, Professor F. F. Miles, Mr. W. Pilliet Pringle.
Mr. E. P. Norman continued in office as Chairman and Dr. M. A. F. Barnett as Vice-Chairman. The vacancy due to the resignation of Mr. J. T. Martin, in December, 1957, has not yet been filled.
Building and Equipment. All property of the Board is in a satisfactory condition.
Educational Work. The Observatory has continued to be open to the public every Friday evening except in the months of December, January and February. There were in all 45 sessions, the telescope being used on 24 occasions and 30 lectures given.
Unsuitable weather conditions during the year caused attendances to fall considerably, there being 652 visits by adults and 801 by children, giving a total of 1,453. This gives a grand total of 27,507 visits since 1946.
Included in the above figures are seven daytime visits by secondary schools and a special visit for instruction in solar and terrestrial relationships by trainees of the New Zealand Broadcasting Service.
Several external lectures to various organisations were given, and newspaper articles on current topics supplied whenever possible upon request. A series of articles were supplied to the “Student's Digest”.
Much clerical assistance has been given to the Royal Astronomical Society of New Zealand, and the Lecture Room has been made available for their meetings. The Lecture Room has also been available to the Astronomical and Geophysical Section of the Wellington Branch of the Royal Society of New Zealand.
Research Work, General. The output of research work fell considerably during the year due to heavily increased administrative work, as well as changes in auroral staff employed under contract with the Air Force Cambridge Research Centre, U.S.A. This is particularly regrettable during I.G.Y. period, when the output should have been at a higher level than normally.
Radio Disturbance Forecasts. The system of short-term ionospheric disturbance forecasts, which had been supplied to Admiralty via the Royal New Zealand Navy for some years, ceased in December, 1958. This service has continued, however, for the New Zealand Broadcasting Service and the Post and Telegraph Department.
It is of some interest to note that there does not seem to have been the general high degree of disturbance noted during the recent solar activity maximum as compared with the 1947 maximum. While this may be due to better selection of frequencies by radio engineers, the impression cannot be disregarded that the solar activity was of a different type or quality.
Solar Observations. Sunspot observations by the projection methods have continued, the results of which are distributed to overseas authorities as regularly as possible.
Due to the troublesome mechanism of the solar camera attachment, solar photography has temporarily been suspended.
General pressure of work caused any serious systematic visual spectrohelioscope observations to be abandoned.
Auroral Work. Visual observations were collected and analysed provisionally as in previous years, from New Zealand, Campbell Island, Antarctica and Australia. Considerable assistance in providing observers and communication channels was given by the Meteorological Service.
All-Sky Camera films from Campbell Island were processed and were very successful. Similar films and spectrocopic plates from other locations were processed under the direction of the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research. The salary of Dr. M. Gadsden, attached to I.G.Y. Invercargill Station, was paid out of the Observatory Air Force Cambridge Research Centre contract funds. Reports supplied by him were forwarded to A.F.C.R.C.
Considerable time was spent in overseas correspondence, particularly with Sir Sydney Chapman, on general matters concerning the aurora, as well as trying to ascertain if international agreement had been reached in the method of reducing All-Sky Camera Films. This subject still appears to be in an unsatisfactory state, and to some extent held up such work in New Zealand.
Moon Position Programme. The Markowitz Moon Camera on loan from the United States Naval Observatory for determining accurate positions of the moon in relation to back-stars was successfully adapted to the 9-inch telescope with the help of the instrument maker of the Seismological Observatory. The same observatory also assisted with the loan of a good new chronograph.
A number of plates have been taken, but while the moon images are good, there is still some uncertainty about the star images due to excessive plate darkening. Similar troubles appear to have been experienced initially at other observatories, and it is expected that these
difficulties will be overcome in due course. Test plates on the cluster Praesepe are currently under investigation to help in the problem.
Artificial Satellites. The Observatory has not sufficient staff or means to make regular observations of artificial satellites at present. However, from regular information received from the United States a general watch is maintained when suitable appearances may occur. In this way a few observations have been made, particularly with a pilot-balloon theodolite on loan from U.S.A.
The full theory and method of calculating predictions from orbit elements was worked out using the already well known dynamical astronomy methods. This was done in case it should be needed in the future.
An investigation was made of reports of the possible end of 1958 Delta One, but it is evident that a small meteor shower in which a few bodies were present, coincided near this time.
Solar Eclipse. The Director, accompanied by Mr. R. Dibble, of the Seismological Observatory, as Government representative, visited the island of Atafu, in the Tokelau Group, to observe the total solar eclipse of October 12, 1958, in conjunction with a small party under the leadership of Dr. H. von Kluber from the United Kingdom.
Using a quadruple camera on loan from the United Kingdom, five successful plates were obtained. Each plate contains four images—three polarised at angles of sixty degrees and one direct. No time has been available since returning to New Zealand to study these plates. The experiments of the United Kingdom party were highly successful.
The success of the parties depended on the co-operation and help of the Island Territories Department, Ministry of Works, Royal N.Z. Air Force, N.Z. Army, and D.S.I.R.
Mars. Permission was given to Mr. P. A. Read to make observations of Mars for a few evenings during apposition.
Computations and Information. Short tables were supplied to the Marine Department for the easy calculation of sunrise and sunset over the whole New Zealand area, and printed in the N.Z. Nautical Almanac, 1959. A small publication giving astronomical phenomena for 1959 was prepared and printed by the Observatory. General astronomical information has been supplied to official and professional interests as required.
Staff. Mr. I. L. Thomsen (Director), Mr. G. W. McQuistan (astronomical assistant), Miss M. O Jones (clerk), Miss R. Taylor (auroral assistant, resigned October, 1958), Mr. A. G. E. Taylor (auroral assistant, commenced June, 1958) Honorary assistants for public evenings, Messrs. G. A. Eiby, R B. Orton, P. A. Read, R. D. Belesky.
Royal Society's Representative on Carter Observatory Board.
On the motion of Mr. Callaghan, who stated that Professor Walker, one of the representatives of the Society on the Carter Observatory Board, in the absence of Dr. Barnett, who was overseas, had presented an excellent report, the report was adopted, and Professor Walker and the Carter Observatory staff thanked for their work.
Report of Representative on National Historic Places Trust
The foundation chairman, the Hon. C. M. Bowden, retired from the Trust in May of last year, and Mr. Ormond Wilson was appointed as his successor.
Many of the seventeen regional committees established in 1951 are now vigorous bodies. They have made general surveys of their districts and are now submitting to the Trust lists of historic buildings, sites and monuments, with their recommendations. They are also organizing the recording of buildings and sites by photography and detailed scale-drawings, in accordance with a directive issued by the Trust. All but two of the committees have been visited by the Chairman and the Secretary during the year.
Ten plaques have been set up in New Zealand to mark places of local or national importance. There are many other interesting sites which do not warrant plaques, and about which it is desirable to give a visitor more information than the arrow limits of a plaque would permit. For such sites a standard form of notice board has been designed. The colour chosen is a pale blue with white lettering.
A party has done more recordings of rock-shelters in the Waitaki and Ahuriri valleys. Latex moulds of rock-carvings at Kohi Gorge, Waverley, have been successfully made, and the shallow cave containing them has been closed by heavy wire netting.
Te Porere redoubt, the site of Te Kooti's last major stand, has been placed in the care of the Trust by the Maori owners. The earth work has been cleared and will be fenced, and access to the site will be improved by the construction of two small bridges.
Grants have been made for the maintenance of two old houses, the “Levels” (Timaru) and the “Cuddy” (Waimate), for repairs to the Anglican Church at Pukehau (Hawke's
Bay), and for the restoration of the Kaiapohia Pa (Canterbury) and the Paremata redoubt. Arrangements have been made for the Trust to put a plaque and notice-boards at the “Elms” (Tauranga), and notice-boards at Onawe Pa (Akaroa) and at Kemp's Pa (Wanganui River).
The matter of the Cathedral Church of St. Paul is still unresolved, and the struggle to save it from demolition goes on with great vigour and with wide public support. The Trust's failure to save Bethune's Building, in Wellington, calls attention to the limited sanctions the Trust can apply.
The annual Government grant was reduced by almost 50 per cent., to £4,500, for the year 1958–59. This will meet the administrative costs of the Trust and its regional committees, and allow current projects to continue. Finance for some major projects in the coming year will have to be found from reserves if the grant remains at last year's figure.
With the rapidly increasing number of projects that the regional committees are submitting, additional staff will be needed to cope with the research and the field-work these projects involve. A substantial grant has been made to the Archaeological Association to establish a site recording system. This system, in a few years will be of great assistance to the Trust in establishing the historicity of many pre-European sites.
J. D. H. Buchanan,
Representative on National Historic Places Trust.
On the motion of the President, the report submitted by Mr. J. D. H. Buchanan, the Society's representative on the Trust, was adopted.
Mr. Callaghan asked if a list of the rock paintings found in New Zealand had ever been compiled. Dr. Salmon stated that some years ago he had listed and photographed many of the rock paintings around Canterbury. Dr. Archey stated that a good deal in this direction had already been done and that further work was planned. Dr. Salmon drew attention to the reduction of the Government Grant to the Trust. It was explained that the present grant was adequate for the Trust's present needs.
Report of Representative on the Ross Dependency Research Committee
The Committee's primary task was to plan, co-ordinate and supervise a scientific programme for the 1958–59 summer season, and for Scott Base and Hallett Station for 1959 following the conclusion of the International Geophysical Year on December 31, 1958.
Despite a late start, the planned programme, with one exception, was successfully implemented. The Geological and Survey Expedition did not reach its objective on the Victoria Land coast because extremely adverse weather and ice conditions made landings from United States icebreakers impossible. An alternative programme devised at short notice was accomplished successfully. Achievements of the year have been largely dependent on the support of the personnel of the United States Naval Support Force and of H.M.N.Z.S. Endeavour and H.M.N.Z.S. Kanieri.
At Scott Base the scientific programme undertaken during I.G.Y. has been modified to reduce the intensity of observations and to concentrate more on specific research problems The position of the base on a north/south line of mainly New Zealand stations running from the South Pole northward through New Zealand and the excellent equipment at the base, enables work to be done of considerable significance to world scientific problems, particularly in upper atmosphere, physics and seismology. The programme includes ionospheric sounding, geomagnetism, aurora, seismology, sea level recording and glaciology. During the summer biological surveys on Ross Island and in McMurdo Sound were conducted. Gravity measurements were made near Scott Base and west of McMurdo Sound. The wintering party (13) includes three American guest scientists.
Hallett Station has been operated as a joint United States-New Zealand station. The United States maintains the station, support-staff and equipment. The four scientific officers include a United States meteorologist assisted by three Navy aerographers, and three N.Z. scientists working on aurora, geomagnetism, ionosphere and seismology. During the 1958–59 summer a N.Z. biologist carried out biological surveys of bird life at the Hallett penguin rookery.
The N.Z. Geological and Survey Exhibition (1958–59) planned to land at Wood Bay and Terra Nova Bay and to explore glacial valleys flowing into those areas, geologically and topographically. When ice conditions prevented this, the expedition carried out geological work near McMurdo Sound and established survey stations as a network to tie in air photographs. Geological and topographic surveys were made on Coulman, White, Black, Brown, Ross and Beaufort Islands. Wright and Taylor Dry valleys, Cape Chocolate, Solitary Rocks (type Beacon Sandstone), Kukri Hills, Granite Harbour, Cape Roberts, and Cape Bird were
also visited, and detailed work carried out at Cape Crozier and Mina Bluff. Mount Erebus was climbed and the crater examined in an important contribution to Antarctic volcanology. Mount Terror and Mount Discovery were also climbed and survey stations established.
By this work enough data were accumulated to produce a detailed topographic map of the McMurdo Sound area as a basis for future studies.
Extension of such mapping throughout the Ross Dependency by the co-operation of United States planes and New Zealand surveyors, appears to your representative to be the most profitable avenue to pursue in future planning of joint operations at international level.
A four-man expedition organised by the Geology Department, Victoria University of Wellington, authorised by the Minister for Scientific and Industrial Research on the committee's recommendation, was transported by U.S. helicopter from McMurdo air facility to the field for seven weeks, and was evacuated on January 30, 1959. It was financed by Victoria University and the University Research Grants Committee, with assistance by D.S.I.R. and N.Z. firms. It successfully mapped 1,000 square miles of this unique valley system geologically and topographically. The area is ice free, with lakes and a relatively warm climate.
In addition to gathering climatological data and many biological specimens, the expedition collected meteorological data and made gravity observations from the coast to within four miles of the Polar plateau.
Biologists from Scott Base worked at Black Island, Taylor Dry Valley, Cape Crozier, Cape Bird, Cape Royds, Beaufort Island and Tent Island. Penguin colonies on Ross and Beaufort Islands were inspected. Seals were studied in respect to pupping and population structure Observations on skuas were contributed to an international study. At the ice edge in McMurdo Sound, marine collections were made with fish traps and long lines in 35 to 240 fathoms. Observations were made on bird, whale, and seal distribution, between McMurdo Sound and New Zealand.
Oceanographic surveys between New Zealand and the Antarctic this season included the first systematic survey of the Ross Sea. The Antarctic Convergence was traversed eastwards from near Macquane Island to the pack ice north of the Ross Sea.
A complete C14 dating profile from surface to bottom across the convergence can now be constructed. In the Ross Sea 20 oceanographic stations were occupied along five lines, each comprising complete hydrology, bottom dredging, plankton trawls and bottom sediment cores. Four bottom dredge stations were occupied round Ross Island and one C14 sampling station in McMurdo Sound. A proton magnetometer installed on H.M.N.Z.S. Endeavour allowed a continuous total force magnetic survey to be earned out during Antarctic cruises this season.
In the scientific activities reported in the above paragraphs the following bodies participated: Dominion Museum (biology), Victoria University (as specified), Canterbury University (upper atmosphere), the Lands and Survey Department, and several D.S.I.R. units (N.Z. Geological Survey, Oceanographic Institute, Geophysics Division, Dominion Physical Laboratory).
The co-operative spirit of I.G.Y. is being maintained I.G.Y. was operated under the auspices of the International Council of Scientific Unions (I.C.S.U.), which early in 1958 set up the Special Committee on Antarctic Research (S.C.A.R.) to promote and co-ordinate international scientific collaboration in Antarctica. Membership is through the national adhering body to I.C.S.U., in New Zealand, the Royal Society of New Zealand. The Society designated the Ross Dependency Research Committee as the National Committee on Antarctic Research and appointed Dr. E. I. Robertson the New Zealand delegate to S.C.A.R. S.C.A.R. is more broadly based than its I.G.Y. counterpart, and is concerned with geology, cartography, biology and physiology, as well as geophysics.
S.C.A.R. first met at The Hague in February, 1958, when New Zealand was not represented; next at Moscow, in August, 1958, when Dr. Robertson attended; and lastly at Canberra, where Dr. Robertson and Dr. R. G. Simmers represented New Zealand.
Participation in S.C.A.R. has enabled New Zealand to make a significant contribution to international Antarctic research and to establish close personal contacts with leading scientists in other countries. Therefore the R.D.R.C. strongly favours continued support of S.C.A.R., which entails the payment of a subscription by the Royal Society of New Zealand.
New Zealand has fostered international co-operation in the Antarctic. Three American guest scientists are wintering over at Scott Base, and during the past season Russian scientists from Mirny spent several days at the base.
C. A. Fleming,
Representative of the Royal Society of New Zealand.
On the motion of Dr. Fleming, the report of the R.D.R.C. was adopted.
Report of Representative on The Ross Sea Committee
The Committee is now largely discharged of its duties and is awaiting the final balancing of accounts before winding up. There were only two meetings in the past year. There has been an allocation of funds in Britain to cover the publication of scientific results from the Expedition and it is anticipated that New Zealand work will be properly represented in the Expedition's series.
L. R. Richardson,
Representative of the Royal Society on the Ross Sea Committee.
On the motion of Dr. Falla, the report presented by Professor Richardson was adopted.
Report of New Zealand Delegation to the Special Committee on Antarctic Research Third Meeting, Canberra, March. 2–6, 1959
The third meeting of S.C.A.R. was held in Canberra from March 2–6, 1959. Scientific delegates from all twelve member nations (except Chile) and from the I.U.G G. were present, while S.C.O.R. and W.M.O. sent observers. The following advisers also attended: Argentina (1), Australia (7), France (1), New Zealand (1), South Africa (1), United Kingdom (4), U.S.A. (10), and U.S.S R. (1).
Plenary sessions were held on March 2, 3 and 6, and Working Group meetings as follows: Cartography (Convener, G. R. Laclavere), March 3, 4, 5. Meteorology (Convener, H. Wexler), March 3, 4, 5. Biology (Convener, R. Carrick), March 3, 4, 5. Exchange of Information (Convener, G. de Q. Robin), March 4. Upper Atmosphere Physics (Convener, F. J. Jacka), March 5. Programme Amendments (Convener, L. M. Gould), March 5.
As the minutes will be distributed in the near future, this report will only cover the main aspects and decisions reached.
International Co-operation. The delegates were convinced that scientific work should be continued in Antarctica on a large scale, and appreciated the fact that only on a co-operative basis could many research projects be carried out. On this account, information concerning the past and future scientific activities was freely exchanged and arrangements made for the regular exchange of scientific data, maps and publications. Several of the matters discussed, such as mapping of the Antarctic continent and the admission of Poland as a member of S.C.A.R., had obvious political implications. However, the desire to preserve the strong spirit of collaboration in Antarctic research that began during the I.G.Y. enabled such matters to be satisfactorily resolved.
The following facts clearly demonstrate that Chile is the only member of S.C.A.R. which does not appear to be enthusiastic about co-operation in Antarctic research.
1. It is the only country that has not formed a National Antarctic Committee as recommended by S.C.A.R.
2. It was the only country not represented at the Moscow and Canberra S.C.A.R. meetings.
3. It has not appointed representatives to the permanent working groups on Cartography and Radio Communications.
4. It was the only country which did not send a national report to the Canberra meeting concerning its 1959 programme and its proposed programme for 1960. Reports on activities during 1957–58 and its proposed programme for 1959 were, however, sent to the Moscow meeting.
Exchange of Personnel. At the Moscow meeting it was recommended that the exchange of personnel, as during the I.G.Y., should be continued as a general policy, subject to bilateral agreement in every case. The following evidence, presented at the Canberra meeting, showed that this policy had been implemented extremely well and that bilateral negotiations were preferable to arrangements made through the S.C.A.R. secretariat.
1. Two South African meteorologists will work at the U.K. Halley Bay station during 1959.
2. Three U.S.A. scientists will work at Scott Base during 1959.
3. During the 1958–59 summer one U.S.A. biologist was attached to the “Endeavour's” cruise in the Ross Sea and one N.Z. scientist joined a U.S.A. traverse party.
4. Halett Station would continue as a joint U.S.A.-N.Z. station during 1959.
5. During 1959 several U.S.A. scientists would be attached to Wilkes Station (Australia) and one U.S.A. meteorologist to Ellsworth Station (Argentina).
6. Two U.S.A. biologists had worked at Deception Station (Argentina) during the 1958–59 summer.
The French delegate, G. Weill, asked me to look into the possibility of a New Zealander wintering over at Dumont d'Urville and a Frenchman at Scott Base during 1960. He preferred a New Zealander qualified to conduct the auroral radar programme. Because of the
tentative enquiry made to me in Moscow by Burkhanov concerning the interchange of personnel between Scott Base and Mirny, I discussed this matter with M. Rubin, a U.S.A. meteorologist who spent 1958 at Mirny. He confirmed our view that the New Zealander would have to be a first class scientist, a good “ambassador” with a strong character and have taken lessons in Russian for several months before departure for the Antarctic. There is very little scope for geology in the Mirny area, and the most appropriate discipline would be geomagnetism, ionosphere or aurora because the calibre of the U.S.S.R. scientists is not as high in these disciplines compared with meteorology, glaciology, etc. As the U.S.S.R. delegate did not raise with me at Canberra the question of exchange of N.Z. and U.S.S.R. scientists I took no action in the matter.
National Reports on 1959 Activities. Full details are given in the set of national reports which is on circulation to members of the R.D.R.C. and interested scientists and a summary is contained in the minutes of the Canberra meetings. The following information, however, deserves special mention.
1. All countries would continue work in Antarctica during 1959 at much the same level as during the I.G.Y. Some I.G.Y. stations would be closed, but there was an equivalent increase in the scientific work due to the inclusion of biological, medical and geological activities in the post I.G.Y. programmes.
2. Charcot interior station (France), Little America (U.S.A.), and Oasis Pioneerskaya and Sovietskaya (U.S.S.R.) stations were closed in January, 1959.
3. A U.S.S.R. station at the Pole of Inaccessibility was operated from December 14–26, 1958.
4. Komsomolskaya station (U.S.S.R.) may be closed during the 1959 winter.
5. It was not known at the time of the meeting whether the U.S.S.R. attempt to establish a new coastal station, Lazarev, at approximately 10° E. had been successful.
6. Oasis had been handed over to the Polish Republic which intended to put in a wintering party during the 1959–60 summer.
7. A French station on Kerguelen Island will be operated for 18 months, commencing in April, 1959.
8. Extensive glaciological traverses were carried Out by the U.S.A. and U.S.S.R. during the 1958–59 summer.
National Reports on Proposed 1960 Activities. 1. All countries plan to continue their scientific work during 1960 at much the same level as during 1959.
2. Glaciological traverses are planned by the U.S.A. and U.S.S.R. during the 1959–60 summer season. Details of the U.S.A. plans have not been finalised, but the U.S.S.R., is planning the very long traverse from Vostock-South Pole-Pole of Inaccessibility-Lazarev.
Antarctic Symposium at Buenos Aires, November 16–21, 1959.—The following extract is taken from the statement presented by the Argentinian delegate.: “The Antarctic Symposium of Buenos Aires is to be held between November 16 and 21, 1959, with the object to have the first scientific and technical results of the Antarctic activities carried out during the International Geophysical Year (I.G.Y.) presented, to contribute in encouraging Antarctic research and to give an opportunity to Antarctic investigators to make personal contacts.”
Following discussions at Canberra it was agreed that the biological and geological sciences would also be included in the scope of the symposium.
N.B.—The Argentine Government will pay the return transportation expenses of two delegates from New Zealand to Buenos Aires and sojourn expenses for ten days while in Argentina.
Polish Application for Membership of S.C.A. R. A party of six Polish scientists took over Oasis Station from the U.S.S.R. in January, 1959, remained about two weeks and returned by a Russian ship to Poland. After considerable discussion it was agreed (the U.S.S.R. delegate abstained) that until the Polish 1960 wintering party arrived in the Antarctic during the 1959–60 summer, Poland could not claim to be “actively engaged in Antarctic research” as required under the S.C.A.R. constitution. On this account, the S.C.A.R. Executive Committee was given authority to accept Poland as a member on receipt of cabled advice that the 1960 wintering party had landed.
Report of Finance Sub-Committee. A copy of this report has been sent to the Secretary of the R.D.R.C. The 1958 subscription rate of 500 dollars per member nation will apply in 1959. The finance sub-committee will review the financial position at the end of 1959, and if any increase in the subscription rate is required for 1960 it will be based on the principles established at the Hague meeting.
It was agreed “that National adherents to S.C.A.R. should pay their annual subscriptions for each calendar year by June 30 of that year Members who have not paid these subscriptions by June 30 of the following year shall cease to be members of S.C.A.R.” The general tenor of the discussions was to keep the Secretariat activities and expenses as low as possible.
Cartography. As a result of a resolution passed at the Moscow meeting in August, 1958, a permanent Working Group on Antarctic Cartography had been established to “study
ways and means of producing a map of Antarctica on the scale of 1:3,000,000″. R. G. Dick is the New Zealand representative on this working group. Agreement was reached at Canberra on many of the technical details (concerning a map on this scale and maps of special areas on larger scales) such as scales, spheroid, type of projection, sheet lines and contour interval. However, it was not possible to finalise an internationally acceptable set of conventional map signs which will, therefore, be done by correspondence and presented at the next meeting of the Working Group (probably August or September, 1960).
The U S.S R. delegate considered that a start should be made now on the collating of information and preparation of the 1:3,000,000 map of Antarctica instead of waiting until the air photography of the whole area had been completed and all appropriate ground control points had been established. He also recommended that the area should be divided into various sheets so that each sheet would carry value as a map in itself, and, if joined, would make a complete map. The responsibility for producing the various sheets could be allocated to appropriate nations. Because it would take time to finalise an internationally acceptable set of conventional map signs and no large scale mapping programmes were planned by any country during the 1959–60 summer season, it was decided that the U.S.S.R. proposals should be referred to the Antarctic Mapping Centres of the member nations for their views and the matter given further consideration at the next meeting of the Working Group.
The U.S.A. delegate reported that a plan to map the whole of Antarctica on a scale of 1:6,000,000 and all except the relatively featureless polar cap on a scale of 1:1,000,000 and have the maps available within six years of commencing the project had been approved by the National Academy of Sciences of the U.S.A. and submitted to the Government for consideration. Because of the extensive preparations necessary, the project could not effectively commence until the 1960–61 summer or possibly as late as the 1961–62 summer.
Although there are still some technical details requiring agreement, the work of the Cartography Group has so far been most successful in achieving agreed procedures.
Biological and Medical Sciences. It was agreed that marine biology is an integral part of oceanography because the interpretation of marine biological studies requires physical oceanographical data.
The necessity to integrate all types of oceanographical research was stressed both from the scientific point of view and because they all require the same expensive facility—namely, a research vessel.
The Terrestrial Biology and Medical Research programme could not be formulated at the Moscow meeting because suitably qualified scientists were not present. A comprehensive programme was formulated at the Canberra meeting covering botany, zoology, physiology, behaviour and microbiology. Full particulars will be included in the minutes.
Upper Atmosphere Physics. No major changes were made to the programme formulated at the Moscow meeting. The necessity for continuing visual observations of aurora because of the following limitations of all-sky cameras was discussed.
What is recorded depends on film type, exposure and the optics used.
Colours and structure are not usually discernible.
Discrimination between aurora and cloud is difficult, especially in the presence of moonlight, etc.
The final decision was that visual observations should be made every 15 miutes, especially during Regular World Days and Regular World Intervals, to supplement all-sky camera observations with the objective of drawing synoptic maps. Detailed recommendations on suitable observing procedures will be prepared by the S.C.A.R. reporter for Upper Atmosphere Physics (Dr. O. Schneider).
The need for early publication of the variations in the three components of the geomagnetic field (dominantly hourly values) and the Q indices for all stations was stressed.
Reporters. The Secretary stated that on many occasions he has to consult specialists in order to implement S.C.A.R. resolutions. On this account, the following reporters were appointed to assist him when necessary: Oceanography, M. M. Somov (U.S.S.R.); Meteorology, W. J. Gibbs (Australia), Geology, R. W. Willett (N.Z.); Glaciology, A. P. Crary (U.S.A.); Terrestrial Biology and Medicine, R. Carrick (Australia); Upper Atmosphere Physics, O. Schneider (Argentina); Seismology and Gravity, K. Wadati (Japan); Cartography, G. R. Laclavere (France); Communications, A. H. Sheffield (U.K.).
Exchange of Information. The New Zealand delegation pointed out that the national reports (covering the work carried out during the past year and the programme for the coming year) presented at each S.C.A.R. meeting were unsatisfactory for the following reasons:
1. There is no uniformity in the format and contents.
2. The reports on activities carried out during the past year do not meet the requirements of an “index” to the work carried out. At present, such information which is vital for planning and research purposes is often not available until formal publication several years later.
3. National reports do not contain a list of scientific papers published during the past year.
4. The S.C.A.R. meeting was held too early in the year for the past year's activities to be written up satisfactorily. The next year's programmes also were not definite at this early date.
These difficulties would be overcome if S.C.A.R. meetings were held in August or September each year.
It was agreed that reports on the past year's activities should be distributed by National Committees not later than the end of July each year, beginning in 1960. These reports will cover one operational year up to the time of change-over of personnel at each base and to the completion of the summer voyage in the case of ship reports. Such reports will be brief, factual statements of the scientific work carried out, but are not intended to cover presentation of results. The material to be included will be drawn up by the Secretary, with the assistance of the reporters. Each report will include a bibliography of scientific papers published during the period covered by the report.
For the sake of completeness, a similar report covering the years 1957 and 1958 should be prepared and distributed by November, 1959.
Reports on activities planned for the coming year should be circulated not later than the end of June to all S.C.A.R. delegates and National Committees.
Meteorology. The general interest in reporting networks, communications, and the International Antarctic Analysis Centre made the Meteorological Working Group the largest of the meeting. Ten countries and the World Meteorological Organisation were represented at most of the meetings.
Not many changes are envisaged in reporting stations on the continent, but the meeting recommended strongly that investigations be made of floating and other types of automatic weather stations in order to fill in gaps in the networks on the continent itself, but more particularly in the surrounding oceans.
The meeting accepted with gratitude the Australian offer to set up the International Antarctic Analysis Centre (I.A.A.C.) in Melbourne. It aims to prepare maps to 30° S. Australia is unable from its own resources to provide sufficient professional staff for the Centre, and had sought assistance from other countries. The United States announced that they were attaching one analyst, but other countries were not in a position at the meeting to make announcements. From the tenor of remarks, however, it would seem that sufficient assistance will be forthcoming at least in the first year. Nevertheless, it will be some time before the I.A.A.C. is in full operation. Whilst wishing the Centre well, New Zealand is still rather doubtful if it will be really successful as an operational meteorological centre.
In order to support its deepfreeze flying and shipping activities the United States was obviously keen to see the Centre functioning as an operational centre, and to this end is ready to assist materially in the provision of the requisite communications. The American navy will maintain their existing meteorological communications centre at the Naval Air Facility, McMurdo Sound, and will install a radio teletype link from there to Melbourne. Until this is installed, say towards the end of this year, New Zealand has agreed to continuation of the passing of the Antarctic weather information to Melbourne through Auckland.
Communications within the Antarctic are still a problem, as at present the position is quite unsatisfactory insofar as the Weddell Sea area is concerned. It was agreed that the Argentine station at Ellsworth should become a Mother Station for collecting information for that area, the Falkland Islands and South America and passing it to Melbourne, via McMurdo. Until the link is improved there seems little prospect of Melbourne being able to obtain sufficient information promptly enough to carry operational analysis for the whole of the Antarctic and surrounding waters.
The question of the distribution of the analysed data from Melbourne to Antarctic stations was not fully resolved. Australia hopes to arrange for facsimile broadcasts, but there may be difficulty in obtaining sufficient time on an appropriate broadcasting station. In the meantime the information can be sent to McMurdo Sound either by teletype or facsimile and passed from there to interested stations. There is only limited radio time available, however, on the channels within the Antarctic, and only experience will show if the scheme will be satisfactory.
Next S.C.A.R. Meeting. The next meeting of S.C.A.R. will be held either in Paris or Cambridge (U.K.), late in August or early in September, 1960. The final decisions will be made by the Executive Committee.
Recommendations. 1. The selection of the New Zealand delegates to the Antractic Svmposium in Buenos Aires should be finalised as soon as possible.
2. The New Zealand attitude to an exchange of personnel between Scott Base and Dumont d'Urville station during 1960 should be discussed at the next R.D.R.C. meeting.
3. The 1961 S.C.A.R. meeting should be held in New Zealand.
E. I. Robertson R. G. Simmers,
March 31, 1959.
N. Z. Delegates.
On the motion of the President, the report on S.C.A.R. and the New Zealand delegation to the third meeting of S.C.A R. in Canberra was adopted.
Report of Delegate to the International Council of Scientifig Unions. (I.C.S.U.)
Eighth General Assembly
I duly attended the eighth General Assembly of I.C.S.U., held in Washington D.C., on October 6–10 last. Two representatives from New Zealand had been provided for by I.C.S.U., but I found myself the sole representative for this country.
Members of the Council may recall that in the past I have always been critical of and about the value of the continued adherence of the Royal Society of New Zealand to I.C.S.U. After attending the General Assembly and learning something of the value to science generally of I.C.S.U., and its various activities I have now come to the conclusion that I.C.S.U. is an organisation of the utmost importance to science, and that it should be supported to the full by all national scientific organizations. I.C.S.U. operates at a very high level, and although non-political, one might describe it as “pseudo-political”. It provides next to U.N.E.S.C.O. what seems to me to be the most fruitful source and workable avenue of international co-operation between the different peoples of the world. Through I.C.S.U., with the advance of knowledge, lies one of the world's greatest hopes for better international understanding, and for these reasons I suggest that I.C.S.U. should receive our utmost support. Our own tardiness in the past in this respect I think, has been largely due to lack of background information about I.C.S.U., but the recent Assembly took very definite steps to remove this barrier to international co-operation, a point which was raised by almost every national adhering body present. This is reflected in several of the draft resolutions, and during 1959 a new journal, the “I.C.S.U. Review,” is to appear, under the editorship of Sir Harold Spencer-Jones. The purpose of this journal is to keep national members and scientists generally fully informed concerning the various activities in international science sponsored or otherwise guided by I.C.S.U. and to provide a forum for the discussion of all aspects of international science and co-operation in scientific research.
Among the draft resolutions from the Assembly the following should be noted as of special importance for immediate action: 6, 8, 9. Other important resolutions requiring the attention of National Members are—4, 10b, 13 (1), 13 (2), 13 (3), and the resolution on the policy of political non-discrimination. With regard to resolution 14, and to the Committee for Interspatial Contamination these may cause some surprise in New Zealand circles, but from information placed before the Assembly it was quite evident that something along these lines was essential, especially if the enormous sums of money being spent on this type of research were not to be wasted through some possibly minor lack of planning and co-operation at the highest levels. Concerning resolution 4, I would suggest that if our Society has any funds to spare a donation of 300 dollars might be made by the Royal Society to this fund. I.C.S.U. now supports its own administration entirely from its own income, as do most of the unions. The funds received as a subvention from U.N.E.S C.O. are now used solely for international projects. The purpose of the capital fund is to provide a source of financial stability to draw upon for emergency expenditure and to provide interim finance for projects financed by subvention until the subvention moneys become available. A further resolution proposed by the British delegation reads as follows:—
“To instruct the Executive Board to provide fuller information to all members of I.C.S.U. between General Assemblies and in this connection it is suggested that the Secretary General provide for distribution to Scientific and National Members reports on the meetings of the Executive Board, Special Committees and other agencies of I.C.S.U. together with such documents as the Executive Board may determine, at the same time that the reports are forwarded to the membership of those bodies.”
In connection with resolution 6 it appears that the U.N.E.S.C.O. subvention has been dwindling for several years, due to the ever widening field of U.N.E.S.C.O. activities and the continuing depreciation in the value of money. It was clear that U.N.E.S.C.O. subventions were wisely spent by I.C.S.U., and great value was obtained from every dollar used. However, it also was clear that a new look at the objectives of U.N.E.S.C.O was necessary and a new philosophy towards science is needed in the governing circles of U.N.E.S C.O.
The problem of the biological effects of radiation was on the agenda of the Assembly, but it was decided to take no further action on this matter at present as this has now been taken over in its entirety by the United Nations. If, however, scientists are not satisfied with the U.N. activity in this connection, this matter can again be brought before I.C.S.U. thorugh one of the unions.
Invitations to hold the next General Assembly, in 1961, either in Lisbon or London, were received from the National Academy of Portugal and from the Royal Society of London, and these were referred to the Executive Board for decision. Meetings of the Executive Board and of the General Assembly may be held in any country, and we should give some consideration in the next few years to the possibility of such a meeting being held in New Zealand.
All Commonwealth countries barring New Zealand were represented by at least two delegates, one of which was their Scientific Liaison Officer in Washington, and the other had usually especially come for the purpose. This leads me to some remarks on the New Zealand Scientific Liaison Office in Washington. After I received the Royal Society's invitation asking me to attend as its representative at the Assembly, I telephoned the New Zealand Scientific Liaison Office in Washington with the object of obtaining some background information about I.C.S.U. before the Assembly began. I was amazed to learn that there had been no Scientific Liaison Officer for New Zealand stationed in Washington for nearly five years. The other Commonwealth Scientific Liaison Officers there were quite openly concerned about the lack of a New Zealand representative in what is supposed to be a Commonwealth co-operative effort. Judging from the great interest displayed by the people of the United States in international scientific activities, I would expect Washington to be of considerable importance in these activities for quite some time.
A New Zealand Scientific Liaison Officer stationed in Washington, if the right type of person, could be of great value to New Zealand in keeping New Zealand scientists abreast of international developments. This is a matter which the Royal Society might with advantage take up with the Minister concerned.
J. T. Salmon,
Royal Society of New Zealand Representative at I.C.S.U. General Assembly.
Note.—Resolutions of the General Assembly referred to follow on next page.
A graph prepared by I.C.S.U., showing its Constitution and its ramifications, has been photographed and copies are distributed with this to members of the Council.
Resolutions From. I.C.S.U. General Assembly, 1958
No. 4. “Noting that I.C.S.U. has no capital fund from which to meet extraordinary or emergency expenses, the decision of the Executive Board be strongly endorsed that such an I.C.S.U. Capital Fund be instituted immediately and the Treasurer be instructed to invite each Member of the Council to take early and vigorous action to secure appropriate donations to the Fund.”
No. 6. “Endorsing the recommendation of the U.N.E.S.C.O. Advisory Committee on Research in the Natural Sciences Programme of U.N.E.S.G.O. and also the recommendations of the Executive Board of I.C.S.U.
Decided to transmit once again to all national members of I.C.S.U. its urgent plea, that they make immediate contact with the U.N.E.S.C.O. National Commission in their respective countries, urging the Commissions to include a scientific member in their respective National Delegations to the Tenth General Conference of U.N.E.S.C.O. to ensure that such delegations bring pressure to bear on the General Conference, so that the percentage of the total budget for 1959–60 to be allocated to the Natural Sciences Department be substantially increased; and so that the Departments of Education and Mass Communication be instructed to devote more effort to science education and the dissemination of scientific knowledge.”
No. 8. “Resolved that its National Members be requested to ask their Governments when ratifying the Law of the Sea to signify that at the same time they grant general permission to any scientific research vessel to conduct investigations of the bottom and subsoil of the continental shelf providing the programme is specifically approved by the I.C.S.U., which is the international organisation acting for national scientific academies. The I.C.S.U. will guarantee that the investigations are leading to results which will be published openly for the benefit of science. The coastal state should be notified sufficient time in advance so that it may, if it desires, designate a representative to take part in the work. This proposal is designed to facilitate the operation of Article 68 of the Convention by assisting Governments to identify bona fide scientific research and to avoid diplomatic delays which would jeopardise many types of scientific investigation.”
No. 9. “Resolved to express the hope that the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (U.N.E.S.C.O.) will undertake a major expansion of its Marine Sciences Programme, and in particular that it will invite and help countries bordering on the Indian Ocean to take an active part in the international investigation of the Indian Ocean planned by S.C.O.R. so that the I.C.S.U. and U.N.E.S.C.O. can together assure that these countries gain full benefit from the results of the work.”
No. 13 (1) “Resolved that a Special Committee for Inter-Union Co-operation in Geophysics, henceforward called S.C.G., be established to consist of the members of the present Bureau of the C.S.A.G.I. and of its present reporters on the I.G.Y. disciplines.
The S.C.G. will be organised and managed in accordance with I.C.S.U. Rules for Special Committees.
The S.C.G. will enter into function on the date when the C.S.A.G.I. terminates its work—i.e., on July 1, 1959.”
No. 13 (2). “Resolved that the General Assembly accepts the recommendations of the C.S.A.G.I. in respect of the International Geophysical Co-operation in 1959 that the observational and data collecting activities in the geophysical and related sciences be conducted during 1959 on the same general plan as in 1957–58, under the direction of the C.S.A.G.I., respectively the S.C.G. as far as feasible and at such level and in such fields as may be determined by each Participating National Committee.”
No. 13 (3). “The primary task of the S.C.G. will be to deal with all aspects of the closing stage of the I.G.Y. enterprise, including the International Geophysical Co-operation 1959. Its activities will include publication, finance, and organisation of International co-operation in the use and analysis of I.G.Y. data by World Data Centres, the International Unions, the World Meteorological Organisation and otherwise.
In the accomplishment of this task, a close co-operation between the S.C.G. on one hand and the Unions and Special Committees and other organisations concerned on the other hand, shall be maintained.”
No. 14. “Recognising the need of an International Committee on Space Research and considering that I.C.S.U. should continue its work of co-ordination in this field, there be established an I.C.S.U. Committee on Space Research to function until the end of the year 1959 as follows:—
No. 14 (1). The primary purpose of the Committee is to provide the world scientific community with the means whereby it may exploit the possibilities of satellites and space probes of all kinds for scientific purposes, and exchange the resulting data on a co-operative basis. It shall further report to I.C.S.U. these measures needed in the future to achieve the participation in international programmes of space research of all countries of the world with those which are already actively engaged in research programmes involving the use of instrumental earth satellites and space probes.
No. 14 (2). The Committee shall hold as primary objective the maximum development of space research programmes by the international community of scientists working through I.C.S.U. and its adhering national academies and unions. Recognising, however, the need for international regulation and control of certain aspects of satellite and space probe programmes the Committee shall keep itself fully informed on U.N. or other international activities in this field, in order to assure that maximum advantage is accorded international space scientific research through such regulations, and to make recommendations relative to matters of planning and regulation that may affect the optimum programme of scientific research.
14 (3) and (4) give the composition of the Committee.
No. 14 (5). The Committee on Contamination by Extra Terrestrial Exploration will report its conclusions to the Committee on Space Research.
Political Non-Discrimination. In keeping with the purely scientific character of the I.C.S.U. the General Assembly has approved the following statement:—
1. To ensure the uniform observance of its basic policy of political non-discrimination, the I.C.S.U. affirms the right of the scientists of any country or territory to adhere to or to associate with international scientific activity without regard to race, religion or political philosophy.
2. Such adherence or association has no implication with respect to recognition of the Government of the country or territory concerned.
3. Subject only to payment of subscription and submission of required reports, the I.C.S.U. is prepared to recognise the academy, research council, national committee, or other bona fide scientific group representing scientific activity of any country or territory acting under a Government de facto or de jure, that controls it.
4. Meetings or assemblies of I.C.S.U. or of its dependent organisms such as its special committees and its joint commissions should be held in countries which permit participation of the representatives of every national member of I.C.S.U. or of the dependent organisms of I.C.S.U. concerned, and allow free and prompt dissemination of information related to such meetings.
5. I.C.S.U. and its dependent organisms will take all necessary steps to effect these principles.
In moving the adoption of his report as delegate to the Eighth General Assembly of I.C.S.U. in Washington, Dr. J. T. Salmon stressed the importance of the Assembly and the need for a properly briefed representative to be sent to the General Assembly. He outlined some of the important resolutions which were passed at the General Assembly, copies of which had been circulated to members. Dr. Salmon stated that the grant from U.N.E.S.C.O. to I.C.S.U. had been halved, and assistance from the National Bodies affiliated with I.C.S.U. would be very welcome. This matter was deferred until financial matters came up on the agenda later.
Sir Ernest Marsden commented that it may be well to enquire whether the whole grant to science had been reduced by U.N.E.S.C.O. or whether its grant had gone through other channels.
Report of Conservation Committee
Matters brought before the Conservation Committee have been dealt with as follows:—
1. Ball's Clearing. As reported to the Half-yearly Meeting on December 1, enquiries were made by Mr. F. R. Callaghan, one of the Committee's members, and a satisfactory report was received that the Department of Lands was making adequate arrangements for the preservation of the natural features of Ball's Clearing, Hawke's Bay.
2. Noxious Animals Control and New Zealand Forest Service Experiments in 1080 Poisoning. Further to the report of the meeting convened by the Minister of Forests and tabled at the Half-yearly Meeting, we have to advise that the Committee has kept in touch with the office of the Minister of Forests in connection with the setting up of appropriate conservation and advisory councils.
3. Agricultural Chemicals Bill. Submissions were made to the Department of Agriculture along the lines of the resolution passed at the Half-yearly Meeting, and a reply has been received that consideration will be given to the submissions in the framework of the forthcoming legislation.
4. Destruction of Native Birds on Stewart Island. Submissions having been received from Dr. C. C. Anderson, Invercargill, reporting destruction of native birds alleged to be increasing on account of unsatisfactory ranging coverage at the Island, the convener made enquiries and ascertained that the temporary difficulty is occasioned by the retirement of the ranger for the Department of Internal Affairs. A new appointment is to be made in consultation with the Forest Service, and your Committee is satisfied that suitable action is now being taken.
5. General. The policy followed by the Committee throughout the year has been to urge intensification of research and investigation programmes wherever conservation issues appear to be involved. We consider that there was not sufficient evidence that this has been effectively done in conjunction with deer poisoning experiments in the Caples Valley, while our submissions in connection with the Agricultural Chemicals Bill were made with the same principle in view. We consider that the increased use of pesticides for many purposes requires the utmost vigilance, and would like to urge that as much notice as possible should be given to agencies concerned with biological survey by any organisation planning to use poisons or insecticides in any wholesale or indiscriminate way.
R. A. Falla,
In presenting the report of the Conservation Committee, Dr. R. A. Falla said that the Committee had spent much time on specific problems which had been referred to it. Its policy has been to urge intensification of research and investigation programmes. Further, it urged much greater vigilance and stricter control in regard to the use of pesticides.
Mr. Elder stated that the Conservation Committee would appear to get involved with specific small problems whereas it should be dealing with conservation problems on a wider basis.
After some discussion, on the motion of Dr. Salmon, seconded by Dr. Archey, it was resolved:
“That this meeting of the Council of the Royal Society of New Zealand requests the Conservation Committee to prepare a comprehensive report on the organisation of conservation research and administration in New Zealand to be presented for consideration at the November meeting of the Council.”
On the motion of Dr. Falla, seconded by Dr. Salmon, the report was adopted.
Royal Society's Antarctic Research Committee
After the establishment of the Ross Dependency Research Committee (with representatives of the Royal Society of New Zealand and University) to advise the Government on scientific work in Ross Dependency, the functions of the Antarctic Research Committee became restricted to scientific matters concerning the Trans-Antarctic Expedition (N. Z.) Inc.
On May 25, 1958, the Ross Sea Committee accepted the offer of the Royal Society of New Zealand to deal with the expedition's scientific collections and publication of reports.
In November, the chairman met the Scientific Subcommittee of the Ross Sea Committee, to discuss the publication of results. It was decided that A.R.C. should implement its earlier recommendations made in October, 1956, and endorsed by T.A.E. (N.Z.), with due regard for the plans of T.A.E. (U.K.) to publish a series of scientific reports of the expedition.
The collections made by scientists attached to T.A.E. (N.Z.) Inc. have been deposited in terms of A.R.C.'s earlier recommendations in the Dominion Museum (biological collections) and the N.Z. Geological Survey (geological collections) and the directors of these two institutions have been authorized to sort and catalogue them prior to distribution to specialists approved by A.R.C. under conditions that will ensure the return of types and reference collections to New Zealand.
Biology. Dr. R. W. Balham, T.A.E. biologist, has completed a list of biological material and station list detailing the scope of the 747 items included in the biological collection, with a classified systematic cross-index. One hundred marine stations and 22 non-marine stations were occupied. This is a tribute to the biological work of T.A.E., and A.R.C. has recommended that it should be published as a source of data fundamental to all who will subsequently work on the collections.
The following allocations of collections have been approved: Lichens (Dr. J. Murray to distribute); blood smears (Professor Marshall Laird); Diatoms (Mrs. V. Cassie); Decapod Crustacea (J. C. Yaldwyn); Mollusca (Dr. R. K. Dell); Amphipoda and Isopoda (Dr. D. Hurley); Hirudinea) Professor L. R. Richardson); Echinoidea (Professor H. B. Fell). The Committee proposes to offer other groups of organisms to specialists, including those on the panel drawn up in 1957.
Geology. The Director, N.Z. Geological Survey, reports that the important collections of fossil plants from the Beacon Sandstone have been sent to Mrs. E. P. Plumstead, University of Witwatersrand, who has already furnished a preliminary report, and the fish remains and conchostracans to Drs. Errol White and Bull, British Museum, London. Many rock specimens have been sectioned and are being described by the expedition's geologists, Messrs. B. Gunn and G. Warren.
Specialist Reports. There has been a continuing steady demand for the cyclostyled “specialist reports” on Antarctic biology and geology issued by A.R.C. in 1957, and full sets can no longer be supplied.
Recommendations. (1) As the functions of A.R.C. are likely to be limited to the arrangement for the distribution of collections and for publication of reports on them, the Committee recommends to the Council of the Royal Society of New Zealand that its membership should be reduced to the two persons who will largely be responsible for making such arrangements in terms of the policy set out by A.R.C.—i.e., the directors of the Dominion Museum and of the N.Z. Geological Survey.
(2) The Committee feels that the individual specialist reports should be published in view of the continuing demand.
(3) Judged by the experience of this committee and other current and past Royal Society activities, there is room for a Committee of the Royal Society of New Zealand to act as a focus for the encouragement of expeditions both within and outside New Zealand. We therefore recommend that Council set up a “Royal Society of New Zealand Expedition Committee”.
(4) Equipment. The committee recommends that Trans-Antarctic Expedition (N.Z.) Inc. should be asked to transfer the ownership of scientific equipment, literature and photographs (of scientific interest) acquired by T.A.E. (N.Z.) to the Ross Dependency Research Committee in order that it may continue to function in Antarctic Research by New Zealanders.
For the Committee,
C. A. Fleming,Chairman.
Dr. Fleming moved the adoption of the Antarctic Research Committee, and drew attention to the recommendations it contained. Consideration of Recommendations 1 and 3 were deferred pending the appointment of Committees; Nos. 2, “That in view of the continuing demand the individual specialist reports should be published,” and 4, “That Trans-Antarctic Expedition (N.Z.) Inc. should be asked to transfer the ownership of scientific equipment, literature and photographs (of scientific interest) acquired by T.A.E. (N.Z.) to the Ross Dependency Research Committee in order that it may continue to function in Antarctic Research by New Zealanders.” Recommendations were adopted together with the Report as a whole.
Mr. Willett presented the following report of the Earthquake Risk Committee:
“Your committee on earthquake risk has discussed the problems arising from this field of research, and in view of the limited number of people vitally
interested, coupled with the fact that most of these people are now actively engaged in the work of a similar committee under the sponsorship of the N.Z. Institute of Engineers and of the New Zealand Institute of Architects, your committee suggests that the Royal Society join with the New Zealand Institute of Engineers by appointing a representative on their committee. This, in your committee's view, is the most efficient way of attaining the objects of the original committee.”
On the motion of Mr. Willett, seconded by Mr. Callaghan, the report was received, and it was resolved:
“That the Royal Society seek to join with the N.Z. Institute of Engineers and the N.Z. Institute of Architects Committee on earthquake risk and appoint a representative to that committee.”
Fuel and Power Committee. Mr. R. W. Willett submitted the following report of his sub-committee:
“The Sub-committee on Fuel and Power has considered the advisability of reopening the whole question of fuel and power co-ordination and is now agreed that no useful purpose could be served by reopening the matter at this stage.” Sir Ernest Marsden commented on the “bureaucracy of certain departments” and the futility of endeavouring to get co-operation.
National Committee of I.C.S.U. Dr. Salmon, convener of the N.Z. National Committee of I.C.S.U., reported that the N.Z. body of Crystallographers had fulfilled the conditions necessary and the Royal Society of New Zealand had now made application on their behalf to affiliate with the International Union of Crystallography. In reply to a question as to how this would affect the annual subscription paid by the Royal Society to I.C.S.U., Dr. Salmon replied that it would mean an additional 20 dollars.
Report of Darwin Centenary Expedition, New Zealand Committee
It will be recalled that the expedition consisting of the following members: Dr. Martin Holdgate, United Kingdom (Leader), Mr. G. A. Knox, New Zealand (Zoologist and Deputy Leader), Dr. E. Godley, New Zealand (Botanist), Dr. W. A. Watters, New Zealand (Geologist), arrived in Chile in September, 1958, where they were joined by Dr. W. Kuschel, an Entomologist, as the Chilean member of the Expedition.
Full reports of itinerary have been circulated to all branches, and it remains to report that Dr. Holdgate returned to England and the New Zealand members to New Zealand at the end of March, 1959.
It is clear that the general biological and geological survey of Chile from the island of Chiloe, south to Tierra de Fuego, has resulted in increased knowledge and understanding of the main features of this region and in particular allowed of a new assessment of parallels and relationships to New Zealand problems in the same field. Collections and records have for convenience been shipped from Punta Arenas direct to the United Kingdom, and all material appropriate for further study in New Zealand is to be forwarded from there. We have been advised by Dr. D. C. Martin, Assistant Secretary of the Royal Society, that a meeting of the British Committee is shortly to be held in consultation with Dr. Holdgate, so that proposals for the working up of the material, the publication of reports and any recommendations for further work, either in South America or significant related regions, may be submitted to the Royal Society of New Zealand.
It remains to express on behalf of the Committee, and to convey on behalf of Dr. Martin, appreciation of the financial support given by branches and individuals to the last minute plan to include Dr. Watters in the party, and to the employing authorities for the leave granted to the three New Zealand members of the Expedition. Congratulations are also extended to the Expedition members themselves for their contribution to the excellent teamwork which has already shown such promising results both in the scientific field and in the sphere of international relations.
R. A. Falla,
Dr. Falla moved the adoption of the report of the N.Z. Committee of the Darwin Centenary Expedition. He stated that Dr. Watters would attend the meeting later
and would give a first hand report of the preliminary expedition to Chile. Neither Mr. G. A. Knox nor Dr. E. Godley was able to attend the meeting.
The report was adopted.
Rutherford Lecture. It was announced that Sir Lawrence Bragg had been selected as the 1960 Rutherford Lecturer. A letter from Sir Lawrence Bragg, who stated that Lady Bragg would accompany him, was read.
In the discussion which followed, much satisfaction at the choice of Sir Lawrence Bragg was expressed. September/October was suggested as the most appropriate time in 1960. It was suggested that Lady Bragg, who also was in much demand as a speaker on many subjects in the United Kingdom, should speak to women's organisations and do some broadcasting while in New Zealand.
Dr. Dixon suggested that the N.Z. Institute of Chemistry would be interested in co-operating with the Royal Society and the universities in regard to Sir Lawrence Bragg's visit.
A committee consisting of the President, Professor R. S. Allan, Sir Ernest Marsden, Dr. A. G. Currie, Vice-Chancellor of the University of New Zealand, and Dr. W. M. Hamilton, Secretary of D.S.I.R. was set up to undertake arrangements for the Rutherford Lectures.
Whero Island. Mr. Willett read extracts from a letter from a member of the Southland Branch under whose administration Whero Island had been placed, stating that shags were causing much devastation of vegetation on Whero. The matter was referred to the Conservation Committee, and Dr. Falla stated that it was necessary that progress reports on the Island should be available to the Committee.
Scientific Liaison Officer in Washington. Dr. Salmon who, in his report on the I.C.S.U. General Assembly had adversely criticised the non-appointment of a Scientific Liaison Officer in Washington by the New Zealand Government, said that the Liaison Office was a Commonwealth scheme, and by the non-appointment of an officer New Zealand was not pulling its weight. On the motion of Dr. Salmon, seconded by Dr. Falla, it was resolved:
“That this Council take up the matter of the appointment of a Liaison Officer with the Minister of Scientific and Industrial Research.”
Contribution to I.C.S.U. Dr. Salmon's suggestion that a contribution be made to I.C.S.U. Capital Fund was referred to the Standing Committee for consideration.
U.N.E.S.C.O. On the motion of Dr. Salmon, seconded by Dr. Archey, it was resolved:
“That this Council considers that a Scientific member should be included in delegations to U.N.E.S.C.O. General Assemblies.”
On the motion of Dr. Falla, it was resolved that the endorsed Resolution “6” of I.C.S.U. General Assembly be sent to the Scientific Education Committee of the National Commission of U.N.E.S.C.O.
Report of the Standing Committee for the Year Ended March 31, 1959
Meetings. Nine meetings of the Standing Committee were held during the year, the attendance being as follows:—Dr. J. K. Dixon, Vice-President, 8; Mr. K. R. Allen, 6; Dr. M. A. F. Barnett, 8; Mr. F. R. Callaghan, 6, Mr. S. Cory-Wright, 5; Professor C. A. Cotton, 6; Mr. N. L. Elder (Hawke's Bay), 1; Dr. R. A. Falla, 7; Dr. C. A. Fleming, 8; Sir Ernest Marsden (on leave), 1; Dr. J. T. Salmon (on leave 9 months), 3; Mr. R. W. Willett, 5.
Owing to an alteration in the timetable for lectures in Biology II Lecture Room at Victoria University of Wellington, Standing Committee meetings are now held on the fourth Thursday in the month instead of the fourth Friday.
Dr. J. K. Dixon, Vice-President, has presided at all meetings of the Standing Committee.
Leave of Absence. In May, Dr. Salmon was granted leave of absence for nine months as he was proceeding overseas on refresher leave; in July Sir Ernest Marsden was granted
leave as he was going to England, and in February, Dr. Barnett was granted leave to attend a Meteorological Conference.
Financial. In June advice was received from the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research that the Society's grant for 1958–59 would be increased to £5,000. The Department stated that it was intended that this increase should cover the Royal Society's subscription to the Special Committee on Antarctic Research (S.C.A.R.) set up by the International Council of Scientific Unions.
In accordance with an instruction from the last annual meeting, the Finance Committee drew up a budget for 1959/60 for presentation to the Minister after approval by the half-yearly meeting of the Council.
Prior to waiting on the Minister, a deputation consisting of Dr. Dixon, Dr. Barnett and Mr. Willett called on Dr. Hamilton, Secretary of the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research and acquainted him with the budget proposals. Dr. Hamilton said he would recommend the continuance of the present grant of £5,000, but he reiterated his opinion that the Society, in order to justify its position as an independent body, should do more to help itself financially.
Subsequently, the deputation waited on the Minister, the Hon. P. N. Holloway, who also stressed the need for the Royal Society itself to make greater provision towards its financial needs. He stated that he had had difficulty in finding £5,000 for the 1958–59 grant.
The Minister agreed, if possible, to meet the Council in May and give him views on financial matters.
Half-yearly Meeting. The Hawke's Bay Branch invited the Council to hold its half-yearly meeting in Napier. The meeting was held on December 1.
The Council was accorded a welcome by the Mayor of Napier, Mr. P. Tait, and the President of the Hawke's Bay Branch, Mr. J. S. Peel.
The Branch made excellent arrangements for the Council meeting, and it extended most liberal hospitality not only to the Council but to the wives of Council members who had accompanied their husbands to Napier.
The President, Professor R. S. Allan, extended to Mr. Peel and to Mrs. J. Winkley, Secretary of the Hawke's Bay Branch, an invitation to attend the Council meeting as observers. An invitation had also been extended to the Gisborne Philosophical Society, which was considering the question of affiliation with the Royal Society, and Mr. J. Fowler attended as observer.
In the evening Professor Allan delivered a lecture entitled “The Birth and Reception of an Idea,” this subject being chosen in view of the Darwin centenary. The meeting was a public one and was very well attended.
An innovation in connection with this half-yearly meeting was a meeting of the Council held on the final morning with the local Branch members. At this meeting discussion centred round the problems of the Branch and the ability of the Council of the Royal Society of New Zealand to assist it. The chief difficulty affecting the vigorous life of the Hawke's Bay Branch appeared to be in the fact that it comprises two areas, Napier and Hastings, towns differing in their interests.
Many suggestions regarding prospective speakers and subjects for meetings and other matters were made, and it was felt both by the Branch and the Council members that the meeting had been of considerable value.
The President, Mr. Peel, thanked the Council for its assistance, stating that because of the Council's visit to Napier, a great deal more was now known of the Royal Society of New Zealand and its activities.
The Director of the Hawke's Bay Museum, the late Mr. Bestall, entertained the Council at morning tea.
The Gisborne Philosophical Society took advantage of Professor Allan's visit to Hawke's Bay to arrange a meeting in Gisborne which he was asked to address.
Afterwards the President of the Gisborne Philosophical Society wrote stating that the meeting had been a great success and interest in the Royal Society had been stimulated.
Publications. During Dr. Salmon's absence overseas, Professor C. A. Cotton acted as Honorary Editor.
Obituary Notices: Professor Allan was asked to write for the Transactions an Obituary Notice of Professor W. N. Benson, and Miss L. B. Moore was asked to write one of Dr. H. H. Allan, former Director of the Botany Division of D.S.I.R. Both Professor Benson and Dr. Allan were Past Presidents of the Royal Society of New Zealand.
Proceedings: As the result of a decision by Council to issue Proceedings separately from the Transactions, Volume 85 of the Proceedings (1957–58) to correspond with the Transactions of that year, was issued in May, 1958, and copies were distributed to Exchanges, to Member Bodies in accordance with their stated requirements, to regular subscribers, and to Honorary Members. The question of the distribution of costs was left for later decision. At the half-yearly meeting, 1958, after a good deal of discussion a decision was made to distribute the
Proceedings free of charge to all members of the Branches. This decision made it necessary to distribute an additional 1,150 copies of Volume 86.
Volume 86 of the Proceedings included the Hudson Lecture for 1958 and the Appendix, which had formerly appeared at the end of the Transactions. The cost of printing 3,400 copies (120 pages) was £625.
An endeavour is being made to have the Proceedings published as soon as possible after each annual meeting in May.
Transactions. The Standing Committee was concerned at the delay in the printing of the Transactions, and the matter was taken up with the manager of the Printing Department of the Otago Daily Times Co., who promised an immediate speeding up process. However, to overtake the time lag which had arisen, the printers would require to print six parts each year for three years, and it was evident that with its other printing commitments the Otago Daily Times was unable to fulfil this objective. The Standing Committee therefore, on the recommendation of the Editor, decided to publish double parts-i.e., Volume 86 (Parts ½), and 86 (Parts ¾) and subsequent volumes until such time as the time lag had been overtaken As a further means of reducing delay the Editor was authorised to bring forward for acceptance by the Standing Committee papers as they were refereed instead of warting for a sufficient number of papers for a Part to accumulate.
Indices: The preparation of the material for the Index to the Transactions (Volumes 64–85) is going forward. The Zoology Section has been practically completed by Professor H. B. Fell; the Botany Department of Victoria University has undertaken to prepare the Botany Section; Dr. J. Marwick has undertaken to do the Geology Section, and Mr. S. G. Brooker has completed the Chemistry Section.
Maori Art: In addition to some single parts, three sets of Maori Art were sold during the year, thus reducing the total number of complete sets left to 16.
In view of the continuing demand for this work, the question of its republication was considered, and it was thought the Government Printer might be interested in the proposal.
Donations: As a gesture of appreciation of the Transactions as an avenue for the publication of scientific papers and the treatment of authors by the Society, Mrs. A. Hodgson donated £10 towards publications expenses.
Sales of Publications: Sales have been very steady throughout the year. In addition to the regular subscribers numbering 45, orders for specific volumes of Transactions amounted to £262; Bulletin 5 (Mosses) amounted to £46. This brings the number of copies sold or distributed to 686. The printer still has 250 copies for correction. Bulletin 6 (Mosquitoes) realised £16, leaving 372 copies still in stock.
Fellows. In accordance with the decision of the annual meeting to elect four Fellows in 1959, nominations were called for. Fifteen nominations were received from Member Bodies and were forwarded to the Fellows for selection.
The Fellowship Selection Committee will make its recommendation to the annual meeting in May.
Hector Award, 1958. The Hector Award Committee was unable to make its recommendation in time to the last annual meeting, and the Standing Committee was authorised to act in this direction as soon as the Award Committee reported. At a meeting of the Standing Committee on June 27, the Award Committee's recommendation that the 1958 Medal and Prize be awarded to Professor A. G. McLellan, University of Canterbury, for his theoretical work on the properties of fluids, was adopted.
The presentation of the Hector Medal and Prize was made to Professor McLellan by the President, Professor R. S. Allan, at a meeting of the Canterbury Branch held on October 1, 1958. At that meeting Professor McLellan was the speaker, his subject being “Theory and Experiment in Physics”.
The following members were appointed to the 1959 Hector Award Committee in addition to Dr. A. W. B. Powell, who was appointed at the Annual Meeting in May, 1958:— Dr. J. Marwick, Dr. F. B. Shorland.
E. R. Cooper Award, 1958. At the same meeting as the presentation of the Hector Award was made, the President presented the first E. R. Cooper Memorial Medal and Prize to Dr. C. D. Ellyett, Lecturer in Physics at the University of Canterbury.
Hutton Grants. The following applicants were granted amounts from the Hutton Memorial Fund during the past year: Mr. G. A. Knox and Dr. E. Godley, £30, for the purchase of films for use in the South Pacific Expedition to Chile; a revised application for £25 for field work from Dr. Charlotte Wallace; Mr. Jiro Kikkawa, Department of Zoology, University of Otago, £26, to study the productivity of birds in Lake McKerrow area as part of a study of the habitat segregation of land birds m New Zealand.
One application for a grant for field work in connection with a M.Sc. thesis was declined.
T. K. Sidey Summer-time Award, 1959. Professor Walker found that owing to pressure of work he was unable to act on the Summer-time Award Committee for 1959. Professor A. G. McLellan was appointed to the Committee as Convener.
Applications for the 1959 award were called for in the press throughout New Zealand, and notices announcing that an award would be made were distributed throughout the Commonwealth and America.
Applications are being considered by the Award Committee for report to the Annual Meeting in May.
Member Bodies. Annual Reports and Balance Sheets have been received from Member Bodies as follows:—Auckland Institute, for the year ended March 31, 1958; Southland Branch, for the year ended March 31, 1958; Canterbury Branch, for the year ended October 31, 1958; Wellington Branch, for the year ended September 30, 1958; Otago Branch, for the year ended October 31, 1958; Waikato Scientific Association, for the year ended October 31, 1958; Rotorua Branch, for the year ended September 30, 1958.
Contributions: The last Annual Meeting opened and referred back to the Standing Committee the question of Member Bodies' contributions. A sub-committee was set up to draw up a report which might be acceptable to the Council and Member Bodies. With the approval of the Standing Committee, proposals in the form of a Notice of Motion were presented to the Half-yearly Meeting. These proposals made provision for Member Bodies to have categories of contributing and non-contributing members to the Royal Society, and new rules, A (4) and (5) were framed accordingly, the existing Rules A (4, 5, 6, 7) to become Rules A (6, 7, 8, 9). After a good deal of discussion these proposed rules were adopted. They are now being gazetted.
Library. Work in the Library has been exceedingly busy throughout the year, an influx of Honours students in the Biology, Geology and Geography Departments and scientific research generally, in and out of the Victoria University, being responsible. In addition, 230 interloans involved a good deal of attention.
Volumes coming into the Library during the year number 800, and to make room in the main Library many sections have had to be transferred to the stack room, where there is left only 637 feet of unoccupied shelving. Stock takes up 748 feet of shelving.
Approximately 10 partial sets of Transactions have been sent out during the year either as volumes for the war years which had been applied for by exchanges or by agents acting on behalf of clients.
Binding: 108 volumes have been bound during the past year. This is as much as our present binder can cope with.
At the Half-yearly Meeting the annual allocation from general funds was increased from £50 to £100, and the amount in the Building Account to £160.
The work of assessing the monetary value of the Library as directed by a previous annual meeting of the Council has begun, but to give any realistic figure this will take some time, as during the last ten years prices have varied considerably.
The Secretary's assessment of the Library in 1941 was £12,000. Since that date, the selling price of most volumes has increased from 50% to 100%. As indicative of the variation in publishing prices and current day values, Challenger Reports were published at approximately £2 each for 48 volumes. A recent bookseller's listed price is £800 for these volumes.
U.S. Post-Doctoral Fellowships. It was announced at the Half-yearly Meeting that the following had been selected and approved for the 1958 Post-Doctoral Fellowships in U.S.A.: Dr. John H. Darwin, Wellington; Dr. David G. Edgar, Ruakura; Dr. Bruce R. Penfold, Christchurch; Dr. R. L. C. Pilgrim, Christchurch.
Many enquiries as to Post-Doctoral Fellowships for 1959 have been received, and in reply to enquiries the National Academy of Sciences wrote:
“…. The procedure of allocating funds for this extension has been very slow, and we are reluctant to request additional applications from you before the programme has been made certain. We shall notify you immediately when this happens and then forward the forms which you require.”
N.Z. Science Congress. An invitation has been received from the Wellington Branch to hold the Ninth N.Z. Science Congress in Wellington in 1960. This invitation has been accepted and the Wellington Branch has already commenced its organization for the Congress.
South Pacific Expedition. The proposal to send a third man (a geologist) with the Expedition was confirmed at a meeting of the Standing Committee in June, and the Society undertook to find the amount necessary, this being estimated at £700.
The appeal for funds to Member Bodies and others was launched, and the response was exceedingly satisfactory, a total amount of £357 9s 6d being received to date. A draft for £700 (plus exchange £7) was forwarded to the Royal Society of London on August 14, to cover the expenses of Dr. W. A. Watters.
At a meeting of the Standing Committee in August, Dr. Watters was present at morning tea (the two other members, Mr. G. A. Knox and Dr. E. Godley, being unable to attend) and Dr. Dixon conveyed the Royal Society's best wishes for a most profitable and enjoyable experience. Dr. Watters thanked the Royal Society for the opportunity given to him to take part in the Expedition, and said he would do his best to justify its confidence in him.
Summarised reports from members of the Expedition have been cyclostyled and circulated to Council members, Member Bodies, and to interested departments and organisations.
At the Half-yearly Meeting, Dr. Falla reported that the Royal Society of London would not make any plans towards a major Darwin Expedition until the reports of the preliminary South Pacific Expedition had been considered.
A.N.Z.A.A.S. Professor Cotton reported on the A.N.Z.A.A.S. meeting held in Adelaide, where he had represented the Royal Society of New Zealand.
The next meeting is to be held on August 24–28, in Perth, and delegates to this meeting have yet to be appointed.
National Art Gallery and Dominion Museum. Board of Trustees: It was reported at the Half-Yearly Meeting that the reform in the Constitution of the National Art Gallery and Dominion Museum advocated by the Management Committee had now been agreed to by the Board of Trustees and the Museum Management Committee had been authorised to draw up a scheme to embody these reform proposals.
Museum Management Committee: Dr. C. G. Morice resigned from the Museum Management Committee, and tributes were paid to the valuable work Dr. Morice had carried out while on the Committee. The Standing Committee has not yet nominated his successor.
Technological Museum: Arising from a report to the Half-yearly Meeting on Natural History and Technological Collections drawn up by Mr. F. R. Callaghan and Dr. C. A. Fleming, it was resolved that a committee should be set up to invest gate and report on the need for and possible organization of Technological Museums in New Zealand. To implement this resolution the Standing Committee at its February meeting appointed a sub-committee consisting of Mr. Callaghan, Dr. Falla, Dr. Fleming and Dr. Salmon. The Waikato Scientific Association has expressed its interest in the establishment of such a museum, and has pointed out the advantages of siting one in Hamilton.
I.C.S.U. Dr. J. T. Salmon, who was in the United States at the time of the Eighth General Assembly of the International Council of Scientific Unions (I.C.S.U.) was asked to represent the Royal Society of New Zealand at the Assembly in Washington. Dr. Salmon agreed to do so, and on his return he reported to the Standing Committee on the Assembly and discussed the resolutions which had been passed, particularly those which had a bearing on New Zealand.
A resolution on the freedom of scientific research in connection with investrgation of the continental shelf was brought to the notice of the Minister of Scientific and Industrial Research and one on the need for the inclusion of scientific personnel in delegations to U.N.E.S.C.O. conferences was sent to the Minister of Education.
Some of the resolutions passed at I.C.S.U. General Assembly are being circulated to members, together with graphs which depict the organisation of I.C.S.U. and its ramifications.
Scientific Liaison Officer in Washington. Dr. Salmon reported that the non-appointment of a New Zealand scientific liaison officer in Washington was adversely criticised, and he asked that the matter should be ventilated at the annual meeting. This action was agreed to.
Union of Crystallography. The Secretary of the New Zealand body of Crystallographers stated that it was now prepared to pay the dues demanded by the International Union of Crystallography, and it asked that the Royal Society of New Zealand should make application on its behalf for affiliation with the International Union.
After the names of the New Zealand members had been obtained they were sent with an application for affiliation and have been accepted provisionally.
Special Committee on Antarctic Research (S.C.A.R.) Dr. E. I. Robertson was appointed to represent the Royal Society of New Zealand at a meeting of S.C.A.R. in Moscow, in July/August.
S.C.A.R. recommended that national committees should be set up to deal with all aspects of scientific work in Antarctica, and Dr. Robertson recommended that the Ross Dependency Research Committee recently established by the Minister and Department of Scientific and Industrial Research should be asked to accept this responsibility. The Standing Committee resolved:
“That the Royal Society designates the Ross Dependency Research Committee to be the New Zealand National Committee on Antarctic Research subject to its reappointmen ment as such at the annual meeting of the Royal Society of New Zealand.”
The annual subscription for 1958 to S.C.A.R. (500 dollars) was forwarded to I.C.S.U. in September The request for the 1959 subscription came to hand in February, and this was forwarded as soon as a permit was received from the Reserve Bank.
Dr. Robertson and Dr. R. G. Simmers represented New Zealand at the meeting of S.C.A.R. held in Canberra in February/March, 1959, and the expenses of Dr. Robertson, as the Society's representative, were undertaken by the Royal Society. These amounted to 131.5s 3d. The two years' subscription to S.C.A.R. and the expenses of Dr. Robertson to Canberra were thus all paid for in the 1958/59 financial year.
U.N.E.S.C.O. Science Technical Sub-Commission: In response to a request from the National Commission of U.N.E.S.C.O. for an additional representative on the Science Technical Sub-Commission, Mr. N. H. Taylor was appointed, in addition to Dr. E. I. Robertson.
Science Exhibition. The Royal Society was approached in connection with the holding of a U.N.E.S.C.O. Travelling Science Exhibition called “Transformation of Energy”.
The Standing Committee nominated Professor L. R. Richardson to act on a national committee which is under the Chairmanship of Dr. R. A. Falla and has been set up to undertake the necessary arrangements in regard to holding this Exhibition.
Conservation. Whero Island: In September, the Director-General of Lands declared Whero Island a reserve for the preservation of flora and fauna, and because of the interest in this island taken by the Southland Branch, the Royal Society of New Zealand was appointed to control and manage the reserve for a term of five years.
The Southland Branch was asked to take over the administration of the Island.
The President of the Southland Branch, Dr. C. C. Anderson, has reported the destruction of vegetation on the island by shags. The matter was referred to the Conservation Committee.
Stewart Island: Dr. Anderson has also drawn attention to the destruction of bird life on Stewart Island.
Fiordland National Park. No finality appears to have been reached by the National Parks Authority regarding the Society's protest about grazing, buildings and respberries in the Fiordland Park's boundaries.
Aratiatia Rapids and Adjoining Areas: Arising from the Half-yearly Meeting, the Ministers of Lands, Works, State Hydro and Tourist Resorts were asked to confer in regard to planning a combined Tourist and Power area including Aratiatia Rapids, Wairakei, and Huka Falls. All Ministers agreed to give consideration to this request.
Inspector of Scenic Reserves: A suggestion was made to the Minister of Lands that the office of Inspector of Scenic Reserves should be re-established. The Minister replied that such an appointment did not seem to be warranted at the present time. Dr. Salmon, who had seen the work done by landscape architects in U.S.A. and elsewhere advocated that landscape architects should be appointed in connection with major developmental works undertaken by the Works Department.
Ball's Clearing: The Hawke's Bay Branch reported that very satisfactory arrangements had been made regarding the Ball's Clearing Scenic Reserve through the combined efforts of Mr. Callaghan and Mr. Barber, of the Lands Department.
Fuel and Power. Acting on an instruction from the annual meeting, the Standing Committee set up a sub-committee consisting of Mr. R. W. Willett (convener), Dr. L. Bastings and Sir Ernest Marsden to consider reopening negotiations.
Technical Education. Having heard that the Minister is setting up a commission on technical education, it was decided to advise him of the Society's interest and its wish to be kept informed of any action taken.
Oceanographic Committee. Professor Richardson was appointed to represent the Royal Society of New Zealand on the Oceanographic Committee of D.S.I.R. in place of Dr. Fleming, who had resigned.
Plant Research Trust Rules. The revised rules of this Fund previously known as the Plant Diseases Trust Fund were approved by the donor of the Fund and were adopted by the Council at its Half-yearly Meeting. The rules are at present being gazetted.
Agricultural Chemical Bill. The draft of this Bill was referred to the Conservation Committee for comment. Dr. Falla, convener of the Conservation Committee, later conferred with the Director-General of Agriculture and suggested minor alterations.
It was resolved that the Report be taken as read. Attention was drawn by Dr. Salmon to the large amount of binding required to be done in the Society's Library. The question was asked whether the Society's binder could undertake more binding than he does at present. In reply, it was stated that more binders were available but that their prices were higher. It was finally resolved, on the motion of Dr. Salmon, seconded by Mr. Allen:
“That we bind as many volumes as it is physically possible subject to finance being available.”
On the motion of Dr. Dixon, seconded by Dr. Fleming, the report of the Standing Committee was adopted.
Report of Honorary Editor
During my absence overseas for the greater part of the last financial year, the full burden of editing the Royal Society's Transactions fell on the shoulders of the Associate Editor,
Professor C. A. Cotton, to whom I should like to record my thanks and great appreciation for the able manner in which he managed the Transactions.
During the past year Volume 85, Parts 2, 3 and 4, and Volume 86, Parts 1 and 2 (combined parts) have been issued, representing a total printing of 713 pages. From this it will be see that the total volume of printing contained in the Transactions is steadily increasing year by year and is bearing out the estimates which we made some years ago for increased finance for the printing of research papers offered to the journal.
For reasons outside the control of the Editors, the volume numbers have again slipped by one year into arrears, so that in Volumes 86 and 87 it has been decided to issue double parts in order that by the end of 1959 the volume numbers should again be up to date.
No Bulletin has been issued during the past financial year, and no papers were offered which could come into the Bulletin category.
The editing of the Society's Transactions, with the ever increasing volume of papers being offered, continues to absorb a considerable amount of my time, even though all the geological papers are handled by Professor Cotton. The mere mechanics of keeping the Transactions rolling takes a considerable amount of the Editor's time, apart altogether from the normal functions of editing. As the physical size of the Transactions increases, it seems to me to be inevitable that the Society will have to give consideration to either appointing a permanent Editor as a paid servant of the Society, or to increasing the Associate Editors in such a way as to relieve some of the pressure on the Editor.
Finally, I would like to record again my appreciation of the help I have received from Professor Cotton, the numerous scientists who have acted as referees of papers, and from the Manager of the Otago Daily Times Co. Printing Department, Mr. A. A. Doig.
J. T. Salmon,
|To Printing Proceedings, Vol. 85||247||6||3|
|Trans. 85 (2)||652||6||9|
|Trans. 85 (3)||484||15||9|
|Trans. 85 (4)||1,028||17||1|
|Proceedings, Vol. 86||625||2||9|
|A/c to Hand since 31/3/58 for Vol. 86 (½)||£782||3||5|
|By Balance at 31/3/58||369||3||2|
|" Amount allocated for printing from annual grant||3,000||0||0|
|" Sales of Publications||294||15||9|
On the motion of Dr. Salmon, his report as Honorary Editor was adopted.
Dr. Salmon expressed his indebtedness to Professor Cotton for undertaking the Editorial work while he was overseas.
In regard to the point raised in the Hon Editor's report regarding the amount of time involved in the work of editing the Transactions, even in the mechanical part of the work—e.g., the despatch of papers to the printers, on the motion of Mr. Brooker, it was resolved:
“That the Standing Committee be empowered, finance being available, to provide assistance for the Editor.”
Report of Honorary Librarian
The Library has been steadily busy. Some 800 items have been added to holdings this year. There were 516 loans from the Library. Of these 229 were inter-loans. Inter-loans have increased by three-quarters in the past nine years. The major work in rearranging the Library has been mostly accomplished so that the stack-room is now much used. This and the work of estimating the number of volumes in the library and their value have been a further real demand on the time of our Secretary and of the Assistant Librarian.
The number of volumes is determined as being 26,771. As a recognised underestimate, there are at least 18,000 volumes to be bound. The binder has been sent 108 volumes in the past year. He has not been seeking further work.
If Council is to attain its desire for the binding of all volumes in the Library it would appear desirable to increase annually the budget allocation for binding so that Council will hold a sum adequate for a major contract with a binder. To indicate the present situation, the balance in the account is of the order of £160, sufficient to cover the cost of binding some 250 to 300 volumes. This is less than the annual accession.
Our Library holds long runs of many major journals. It is not a narrowly specialised scientific library, it has valuable holdings in all major scientific disciplines. Many of the holdings are irreplaceable, and many are replaceable only at prices now beyond the finances of any library in this country.
Our Library is a major national scientific asset created and sustained as part of the work of the Royal Society of New Zealand. It plays an important part in scientific research in this country.
The holdings are fully and freely available to all scientists and other proper persons. Examination of the records of borrowings shows that the great majority are made in relation to research work in progress.
The Library has long been worthy of a special grant to enable Council to ensure the maximum safety of the contents of the Library in ordinary library operations.
I draw the attention of Council to the excellent work of the Secretary and of the Assistant Librarian. Many users of the Library have praised their great helpfulness.
L. R. Richardson,
On the motion of Mr. Callaghan, seconded by Dr. Salmon, the report of the Hon Librarian, Professor L. R. Richardson, was adopted.
Reports of Hutton Grantees
Dr. Maxwell Gage, who was granted £50 in 1954 for research in the Pleistocene history of Canterbury, reported on April 14, 1959, that a further attempt was made to survey the lower part of the Cameron Glacier and its moraines when in company with Mr. W. P. Packard and three students he visited the glacier with plane-table equipment intending to survey a base-line and establish a number of cairn markers as a basis for more detailed topographical work later. An early snowstorm, however, prevented any survey work. It was then determined to wait until mid-summer, but illness in grantee's family prevented this before the opening of the University session.
Mr. L. Gurr, who was granted £80 for research on the Black-billed and the Red-billed Gulls in 1957, reported on April 20, 1959, that during the past year most attention has been paid to fabrication and trial under field conditions of the nest recording devices. Three have now been assembled, one three pen assembly for use with colonial nesting species, and two single pen assemblies for use with species having isolated nests. Field trials have shown that the nest tambours are tolerated by two species of gulls and one species of tern. Results obtained with Black-backed Gull were that a satisfactory colony, free from interference and reasonably close to Palmerston North has been found. Equipment has been tried and adjusted for this species and for conditions pertaining and sufficient records have been obtained to work out interpretation of tracings and indicate rhyme of incubation.
With regard to the Red-billed Gull, records were obtained at the Nelson Boulder Bank Colony. At this Colony also nest recorders were also tried and adjusted for the White-fronted Tern. It was found that the colony of Black-billed Gulls at Clive was subject to interference, and it was decided not to risk the recording apparatus.
The whole of the grant has been expended and grantee conveys his sincere thanks to the Royal Society for its assistance.
Miss V. Jolly, who in 1952 was granted £90 for research on the plankton of New Zealand lakes, reported on April 28 that the research programme is still in progress and the field has been extended each year. Data on 24 lakes has been assembled and a paper on this work was read at Limnologorum Conventus XIII at Helsinki in 1956. The rope and lines bought with funds from the grant are no longer serviceable, but the wire attached to a winch and used for lowering apparatus is still in use.
Mr. Jiro Kikkawa (Teaching Fellow at Department of Zoology, University of Otago) was granted £26 to cover half the cost of chartering an amphibian aeroplane to and from Lake McKerrow for measurement of bird productivity in that area as a part of a study of the habitat segregation of land birds in New Zealand. He reported on April 10 that the investigation has been successfully carried out and the results are being analysed together with similar work done on Kapiti and in the Lake Manapouri-Doubtful Sound area, and a MS. is being prepared for publication in New Zealand. Grantee gives details of the methods used in this work and he expresses his gratitude to the Royal Society for making possible the Lake McKerrow trip.
Dr. Charlotte Wallace was granted £25 for a study of the Ascidial neural complex. She reported on April 27 that preliminary work had been done and collections were made from localities on the North Auckland and Coromandel peninsulas and on the East and West Coasts of South Auckland. Ten species were collected and are being worked upon. A detailed description of the work was contained in the report of grantee, who has to date expended £12 in apparatus.
Dr. J. T. Salmon, who was granted £25 in 1954 towards the translation of foreign papers, reported on April 15 that owing to his absence overseas he has not used the balance of his grant.
Mr. G. A. Knox who, with Dr. E. Godley, was granted £30 for the purchase of a film for the South Pacific Expedition, has reported that the whole of the grant was expended by himself on the understanding that the films would be available to both members of the Expedition. The reason being that he possessed specialised photograph equipment, including Rolliocord 120 cameras and electronic flash. The cost of the film was greater than anticipated, as it was not possible to purchase stocks before leaving New Zealand due to import restrictions. Film purchased in Chile proved expensive. The film thus provided has enabled a very complete photographic record to be made. Mr. Knox was mainly responsible for the black and white coverage on 120 size film, other members took only a limited amount of black and white. The photographs cover the general terrain, vegetation, close-ups of plants and animals, seashore zonation, marine plants and animals and activities of the indigenous Indians. A set of prints is being deposited in the Royal Society of London, and if desired a duplicate set could be deposited with the Royal Society of New Zealand. Grantee sincerely thanks the Royal Society for the grant.
On the motion of Dr. Falla, the reports of the Hutton grantees were received. Professor Percival drew attention to the report from Mr. G. A. Knox, in which he stated that if desired a duplicate set of prints for which film had been provided from a Hutton grant, for use in connection with the South Pacific Expedition to Chile, could be deposited in the Royal Society's library. It was resolved to obtain a duplicate set for the Society.
On the motion of Dr. Salmon, seconded by Mr. Willett, it was resolved:
“That in future all papers published as a result of researches assisted by grants from the Hutton Fund must convey an acknowledgment to the assistance received from the Hutton Fund.”
The meeting adjourned for lunch.
Report of The Honorary Treasurer
I have the honour to present the Balance Sheet and Statements of Accounts for the year ended March 31, 1959, subject to audit, and in doing so refer briefly to some items in the Statement of Income and Expenditure.
The Government grant was increased this year by £1,000 to £5,000, which enables the Royal Society to meet some special obligations as follows:—
Two years' subscription to Special Committee on Antarctic Research (S.C.A.R.), £359.3s 6d, and the expenses of one delegate to S.C.A.R. meeting in Canberra, £130.15s 3d.
The cost of sending a third man from New Zealand with the South Pacific Expedition to Chile amounting to £707, was undertaken by the Royal Society's Council, and an appeal to Member Bodies for contributions produced £357.9s 6d towards this objective, so that the balance of £349.14s 3d was paid by the Society. These items absorbed £839 of the extra £1,000 grant.
Printing costs coming to charge within the year amounted to £2,851 for the Proceedings 85 and 86, and the three parts of the Transactions, Volume 85 (2, 3, 4), instead of the normal four parts.
The reports and balance sheets submitted by Member Bodies indicate that nearly all are contributing according to the rules, with the possible exception of Southland Branch. Nelson Branch has not yet reported, but is expected to contribute ⅙ of subscription income to the Royal Society. Hawke's Bay Branch has already contributed on the basis of the new rule at rate of 5/- per full member.
The Trust Funds are satisfactory. During the year £780 of Government Stock was reinvested on conversion; £180 Government Stock was purchased on account of the E. R. Cooper Trust Fund, and £290 on account of Endowment Fund capital accounts The Endowment Fund shows a balance of revenue £175.15s 1d, of which interest amounting to £154.1s 1d is available for allocation, and I seek direction of the Council as to its application.
[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]
|Balance at March 31, 1958||2,626||3||2|
|Annual Government Grant||5,000||0||0|
|Levy on Transactions, Vols. 85 or 86||455||10||0|
|Sales of Publications—|
|Bulletin No. 5||51||12||0|
|Bulletin No. 6||22||17||6|
|Proceedings Seventh Pacific Science Congress||59||16||8|
|Travelling Expenses: Member Bodies' Share||100||2||10|
|Ninth Pacific Science Congress Refund Delegate's Expenses||28||0||0|
|Contribution to Publications (Mrs Hodgson)||10||0||0|
|South Pacific Expedition Contributions||357||9||6|
|Contributions from Member Bodies (3)||112||3||0|
|Endowment Fund, Interest||154||1||1|
|Hector Memorial Fund, Interest||49||19||4|
|Hutton Memorial Fund, Interest||60||13||4|
|T. K. Sidey Summer-time Fund, Interest||24||0||0|
|Cockayne Memorial Fund, Interest||18||7||1|
|Carter Library Legacy, Interest||8||6||2|
|Plant Research Trust Fund, Interest||33||11||11|
|E. R. Cooper Memorial Fund, Interest||10||4||4|
|Hamilton Memorial Fund, Interest||6||8||5|
|Transfer from P.O.S.B. Trust A/cs. to General A/c.|
[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]
|Printing, Otago Daily Times Co., Transactions 85 (2, 3, 4), and Proceedings||2,200||12||11|
|Binding Library Periodicals||61||9||6|
|Travelling Expenses (two meetings)||237||7||5|
|A.N.Z.A.A.S., Dunedin Meeting, Contribution from Science Congress Fund||130||0||0|
|Pacific Science Association Secretariat||120||1||8|
|South Pacific Expedition||709||3||9|
|International Council Scientific Unions Subscription||73||11||11|
|Special Committee Antarctic Research (S.C.A.R) Subscription (2 years)||359||3||6|
|Delegate's Expenses, Canberra Meeting (S.C.A.R.)||130||15||3|
|Hector Prize and Engraving Medal||51||5||9|
|E. R. Cooper Memorial Fund Prize and Engraving Medal||5||7||6|
|Sidey Summer-time Award: Advertising||27||19||0|
|Trust Funds Audit Fees||6||0||0|
|Trust Funds Investments (Inscribed Stock)||470||0||0|
|Fragments N. Z. Entomology (on A/c. owner)||2||5||0|
|Transfers from General A/c. to Trust Accounts||28||13||6|
|Interest paid direct to Trust Accounts||40||2||0|
|Balance as Under||3,333||11||8|
|Bank of New Zealand||2,385||6||3|
|Less Unpresented Cheques||467||12||9|
|Post Office Savings Bank||1,408||7||9|
|Cash in Hand||0||0||10|
[The section below cannot be correctly rendered as it contains complex formatting. See the image of the page for a more accurate rendering.]
|Hector Memorial Fund, Capital Account||1,184||18||1|
|Hector Memorial Fund, Revenue Account||76||11||11|
|Hutton Memorial Fund, Capital Account||1,506||8||6|
|Hutton Memorial Fund, Revenue Account||128||0||1|
|T. K. Sidey Summertime Fund, Capital Account||571||18||7|
|T. K. Sidey Summertime Fund, Revenue Account||72||9||5|
|Plant Research Trust Fund, Capital Account||542||13||5|
|Plant Research Trust Fund, Revenue Account||339||15||10|
|Cockayne Memorial Fund, Capital Account||249||12||0|
|Cockayne Memorial Fund, Revenue Account||100||4||2|
|Carter Library Legacy, Capital Account||162||19||0|
|Carter Library Legacy, Revenue Account||99||6||7|
|Hamilton Memorial Fund, Capital Account||196||13||11|
|Hamilton Memorial Fund, Revenue Account||8||14||2|
|E. R. Cooper Trust Fund, Capital Account||180||0||0|
|E. R. Cooper Trust Fund, Revenue Account||13||3||10|
|Endowment Fund, Capital Account||2,930||15||9|
|Endowment Fund, Revenue Account||175||15||1|
|Research Grants Fund||35||7||4|
|Library Binding Fund||160||7||6|
|N.Z. Science Congress Fund||223||7||10|
|Accounts in Credit||8||14||0|
|Balance of Assets over Liabilities||3,179||1||3|
|Hector Memorial Fund: Inscribed Stock (Face Value, £1,270)||1,184||18||1|
|Hector Memorial Fund: P.O.S.B Account||76||11||11|
|Hutton Memorial Fund: Inscribed Stock (Face Value, £1,580)||1,506||8||6|
|Hutton Memorial Fund: P.O.S.B. Account||128||0||1|
|T. K. Sidey Summertime Fund: Inscribed Stock (Face Value, £510)||500||2||6|
|T. K. Sidey Summertime Fund: P.O.S.B. Account||143||15||6|
|Plant Research Trust Fund: Inscribed Stock (Face Value, £500)||500||0||0|
|Plant Research Trust Fund: P.O.S.B. Account||382||9||3|
|Cockayne Memorial Fund: Inscribed Stock (Face Value, £260)||249||12||0|
|Cockayne Memorial Fund: P.O.S.B. Account||100||4||2|
|Carter Library Legacy: Inscribed Stock (Face Value, £160)||162||19||0|
|Carter Library Legacy: P.O.S.B. Account||99||6||7|
|Hamilton Memorial Fund: Inscribed Stock (Face Value, £60)||60||0||0|
|Hamilton Memorial Fund: P.O.S.B. Account||145||8||1|
|E. R. Cooper Trust Fund: Inscribed Stock (Face Value, £180)||180||0||0|
|E. R. Cooper Trust Fund: P.O.S.B. Account (£180 owed to R.S.N.Z.)||193||3||10|
|Endowment Fund: Inscribed Stock (Face Value, £2,975)||2,926||2||5|
|Endowment Fund: Part P.O.S.B. Account||180||8||5|
|Bank of New Zealand||1,917||13||6|
|Post Office Savings Bank||1,227||19||4|
|Cash in Hand||0||0||10|
|Balance Imprest Account||7||9||7|
|Nominal Value.||Insured Value.|
|Library and Stack Room, Victoria University of Wellington||11,592||12||0||5,800|
|Furniture and Library Fittings||1,564||0||0||2,000|
|Stock in Store Room, Parliament Buildings||500|
|Carter Library, Dominion Museum||500|
|S. Cory Wright,|
|Printing Transactions (Vol. 85: 2, 3, 4; and Proceedings (2)||2,851||13||6|
|Imprest and Editors' Postages||58||3||10|
|Charges, less Refund Delegate's Expenses 9th Pacific Science Congress||16||4||11|
|Subscription Inter. Council of Scientific Unions||73||11||11|
|Quota Pacific Science Assn. Secretariat||120||1||8|
|Subscription S.C.A.R. (2 years)||359||3||6|
|Delegate to S.C.A.R. Canberra Meeting Expenses||130||15||3|
|Allocation Library Binding (Resolution Half-yearly Meeting)||100||0||0|
|Allocation N.Z. Science Congress Fund||50||0||0|
|South Pacific Expedition||351||14||3|
|By Balance at March 31, 1958||2,714||3||3|
|" Annual Government Grant||5,000||0||0|
|" Contributions, Member Bodies||157||4||1|
|" Sales of Publications||324||11||0|
|" Sales of Proc. Seventh Pacific Science Congress||59||16||8|
|" Levy on Transactions, Volume 86||434||10||0|
|" Trust Funds Administration Expenses||5||5||0|
|" Contribution towards Transactions||10||0||0|
|" Interest from Endowment Fund (Resolution by Annual Meeting, 1958)||84||1||1|
The Royal Society of New Zealand. Trust Funds for the Year Ended March 31, 1959
|" Engraving Medal||1||4||6|
|" Administration Expenses||2||0||0|
|By Capital Invested||1,184||18||1|
|" Balance Revenue A/c., 31/3/58||79||18||4|
|By Balance Capital Account||£1,184||18||1|
|By Balance Revenue Account||£76||11||11|
|" Administration Expenses||2||0||0|
|By Capital Invested||1,506||8||6|
|" Balance Revenue A/c. 31/3/58||169||16||5|
|By Balance Capital Account||£1,506||8||6|
|" Balance Revenue Account||£128||0||1|
|To Advertisements, 1959 Award||27||19||0|
|" Administration Expenses||2||0||0|
|By Capital Invested and P.O.S.B.||569||10||7|
|" Balance Revenue A/c., at 31/3/58||80||16||5|
|" Interest Revenue A/c., £21.12s, Capital A/c, £2.8s||24||0||0|
|By Balance Capital A/c.||£571||18||7|
|" Balance Revenue Account||£72||9||5|
|To Administration Expenses||0||12||6|
|By Capital Invested and P.O.S.B.||542||13||5|
|" Balance Revenue A/c., 31/3/58||306||16||5|
|By Balance Capital Account||£542||13||5|
|" Revenue Account||£339||15||10|
|To Administration Expenses||0||12||6|
|By Capital Invested||249||12||0|
|" Balance Revenue A/c., 31/3/58||82||9||7|
|Balance Revenue, A/c.||£249||12||0|
|" Balance Revenue A/c.||£100||4||2|
|To Administration Expenses||1||0||0|
|By Capital Invested and P.O.S.B.||162||19||0|
|"Balance Revenue A/c., at 31/3/58||92||0||5|
|By Balance Capital A/c.||£162||19||0|
|" Balance Revenue A/c.||£99||6||7|
|To Administration Expenses||0||12||6|
|By Capital Invested and P.O.S.B.||193||9||9|
|" Balance Revenue A/c., 31/3/58||6||2||5|
|" Interest Revenue A/c., £3 4s 3d, Capital A/c., £3 4s 2d||6||8||5|
|By Balance Capital A/c.||£196||13||11|
|" Balance Revenue A/c.||£8||14||2|
|To Administration Expenses||0||2||6|
|" Prize and Engraving Medal||5||7||6|
|By Balance Revenue A/c., at 31/3/58||188||9||6|
|By Balance Capital A/c.||£180||0||0|
|" Balance Revenue A/c.||£13||3||10|
|To Administration Expenses||2||5||0|
|" Transfer to Revenue A/c. (Resolution Annual Meeting, 1958)||84||1||1|
|By Capital Invested and P.O.S.B.||2,830||15||9|
|" Balance Revenue A/c., 31/3/58||208||0||1|
|By Balance Capital A/c.||£2,930||15||9|
|" Balance Revenue A/c.||£175||15||1|
In the absence of the Hon Treasurer, Mr. S. Cory-Wright, Mr. Willett moved the adoption of the report of the Hon. Treasurer and the balance sheet and statement of accounts.
Dr. Archey stated that he was glad to see the Society undertaking its responsibilities in regard to payments to international meetings. Dr. Archey also referred to contributions received during the past year from Member Bodies which made quite a substantial total.
On the motion of Dr. Archey, it was resolved that from the current year's interest in the Endowment Fund, £85 be allocated to Endowment Fund Capital Account and the balance (£69) be allocated to Revenue Account.
Plant Research Trust. On the motion of Dr. Fleming, seconded by Mr. Callaghan, it was resolved to increase the Plant Research Fund capital to £800 by allocating to it £257 6s 7d from the Plant Research Fund Revenue Account.
The Hon. Treasurer's Report and Balance Sheet were adopted.
Member Bodies' Reports and Balance Sheets. The following were placed on the table: Auckland Institute, for the year ended March 31, 1958; Southland Branch, for the year ended March 31, 1958; Wellington Branch, for the year ended September 30, 1958; Canterbury Branch, for the year ended October 31, 1958; Otago Branch, for the year ended October 31, 1958; Waikato Scientific Association, for the year ended October 31, 1958; Rotorua Branch, for the year ended October 31, 1958.
Financial Deputation to Minister. On the motion of the President, the Finance Committee which waited on the Minister was thanked for its work.
Council Meetings. In opening the discussion, Dr. Archey moved the original motion which had been circulated to the Branches for comment as follows:
“That the Branches be invited to comment by March 15, on the suggestion that instead of holding two one-day meetings each year, the Council hold annually a two-day meeting in alternate years in Wellington, and in conjunction with one of the Waikato, Rotorua, Hawke's Bay, Nelson and Southland Branches and that triennial science congresses be held under arrangements made by the Wellington, Auckland, Canterbury and Otago Branches.”
A summary of the replies from Member Bodies regarding the above proposal was read: the majority were in favour of the proposal. Dr. Salmon considered that to hold only one meeting in the year would be a retrograde step. The work of the Society had grown in recent years and demanded a meeting every six months to deal with it. The question of the extra expense involved was not the only thing to be considered. The smaller branches found stimulation in periodic meetings of the Council.
Professor Briggs moved, Dr. Dixon seconded the following amendment:
“That a two-day meeting be held in May and the half-yearly meeting in November to be peripatetic.”
Dr. Falla supported the motion.
Mr. Willett supported a two-day meeting in May, but was doubtful of the wisdom of dropping the November meeting.
Dr. Soper considered that each Branch required a stimulus, and he did not think that the major Member Bodies should be deprived of the opportunity of having meetings of the Council except at twelve yearly intervals as suggested in the original proposal.
Mr. Allen reviewed the position back to 1954, when the annual meeting took a day and a-half, and it was decided to hold two meetings in the year.
Other speakers considered that the November meeting should be restricted to consideration of major scientific problems.
The Chairman then put the amendment, which was carried.
South Pacific Expedition. Dr. W. A. Watters, one of the members of the South Pacific Expedition, attended the meeting to report directly on the Expedition to Chile. He thanked the Royal Society for giving him the opportunity of taking part in the Expedition which, he said, was a wonderful experience. He paid a tribute to the Chilean Government for providing transport which enabled the Expedition to cover a great deal more ground than it could otherwise have done. The Expedition was fortunate with the weather. They found that Chile greatly resembles New Zealand, especially the South Island. Wonderful hospitality had been extended to the members of the Expedition, and they had been welcomed into many homes.
Dr. Kuschel, the Chilean member of the Expedition, had been an excellent companion, and helped them out in language difficulties. At one stage they had been accompanied by a Swiss geologist and all got on well together. Dr. Watters paid a tribute to the excellent leadership of Dr. Martin Holdgate. Despite the severe set-back by the theft of stores and clothing soon after arrival, Dr. Holdgate remained unruffled.
The specimens collected were about to arrive in England—it had not been possible to ship them direct to New Zealand.
Dr. Watters reiterated his thanks to the Royal Society of New Zealand.
The President thanked Dr. Watters for attending the meeting and giving a most interesting account in summary of the Expedition's work.
Election of Officers. Vice-Presidents: Dr. J. K. Dixon and Dr. F. G. Soper were re-elected Hon. Treasurer: Mr. S. Cory Wright (re-elected). Hon. Editor: Dr. J. T. Salmon (re-elected). Hon. Librarian: Professor L. R. Richardson (re-elected).
Election of Committees. Hector Award: Dr. G. H. Cunningham, Mrs. Watson Smith, and one to be appointed. Hamilton Award: Dr. C. A. Fleming, Professor L. R. Richardson, Dr. R. A. Falla. Fellowship Selection Committee: Professor E. Beaglehole (Convener), Professor C. A. Cotton, Dr. J. T. Salmon, Miss L. B. Moore and Sir Ernest Marsden Nominations Committee: Professor R. S. Allan (Convener), Dr. R. A. Falla, Dr. G. Archey, Sir Ernest Marsden, Professor L. H. Briggs. Library Committee: Hon. Librarian (Professor Richardson), Professor C. A. Cotton, Mr. F. R. Callaghan, Dr. J. T. Salmon Conservation Committee: Dr. G. Archey (Convener), Dr. R. A. Falla, Dr. J. T. Salmon, Mr. F. R. Callaghan, Mr. A. L. Poole E. R. Cooper Award Committee. Dr. M. A. F. Barnett (Convener), Professor D. Walker, Mr. J. H. Ward Research Grants Committee: Dr. R. A. Falla (Convener), Mr. F. R. Callaghan, Dr. C. A. Fleming. Antarctic Research Committee: Dr. R. A. Falla, Mr. R. W. Willett. National Academy of Sciences Post-Doctoral Fellowships Committee: Professor R. S. Allan (Convener), Professor J. Packer, Dr. G. Archey, Mr. F. R. Callaghan, and representatives of the N.Z. University and Department of Scientific and Industrial Research Royal Society of N.Z. Expeditions Committee Professor L. R. Richardson (Convener); Standing Committee to nominate two others. Darwin Expedition Committee: Dr. R. A. Falla, Dr. C. A. Fleming.
N. Z. National Committee on Antarctic Research. On the motion of Dr. Fleming, seconded by Mr. Willett, it was resolved that the Ross Dependency Research Committee be appointed the N. Z. National Committee on Antarctic Research.
Appointment of Representatives. Great Barrier Reef Committee: Dr. B. Brewin was appointed representative of the Royal Society of New Zealand on the Great Barrier Reef Committee. Earthquake Risk Committee: Mr. R. W. Willett was appointed to Committee of the N. Z. Institution of Engineers and the N. Z. Institute of Architects Royal N. Z. Institute of Horticulture: Professor H. D. Gordon was appointed to represent the Royal Society of New Zealand on the Council of the Institute of Horticulture. Oceanographic Committee of New Zealand: Professor L. R. Richardson was appointed to represent the Royal Society of New Zealand on the Oceanographic Committee. National Parks Authority: Mr. F. R. Callaghan was appointed to represent the Royal Society of New Zealand on the National Parks Authority.
Council Meetings. These were left in the hands of the Standing Committee to arrange.
Votes of Thanks. The President moved a very hearty vote of thanks to the Council of Victoria University of Wellington for the use of its Council Room, to the Press, and to the Secretary of the Society, seconded by Dr. Soper, and carried.
The President then thanked the Vice-Presidents for their work, and he paid a special tribute to Dr. Dixon, who had acted as Chairman of all Standing Committee meetings throughout the year.
On the motion of Dr. Archey, seconded by Dr. Soper, all the committees and the Society's representatives, were accorded a cordial vote of thanks for their work on behalf of the Society.
On the motion of Dr. Dixon, Vice-President, the President was warmly thanked for his able Chairmanship of the meeting and for getting through the business in record time Carried by acclamation.
The meeting closed at 4.30 p. m.
In the evening the Presidential Address was delivered before the Wellington Branch of the Society by Professor R. S. Allan, his subject being “The Role and Functions of the Royal Society of New Zealand.”
At its conclusion, Dr. J. K. Dixon, Vice-President of the Royal Society, proposed a vote of thanks to Professor Allan, who was asked to allow his Address to be published in the Transactions.
Reports of Member Bodies
Auckland Institute and Museum
Annual Report for the Year ended March 31, 1959
The most important matter which has been engaging the attention of the Council during the last year is the approaching completion of the new War Memorial building and the problem of finding money to provide floor coverings and furniture. Our Director and Staff have a tremendous task ahead of them in the movement of the collections, equipment and Library into the store rooms and exhibition halls of the new building.
During the year an appeal was made by the Auckland War Memorial Committee which resulted in the sum of £23,000 being contributed to ensure the completion of the building. It is hoped that it will be possible to open the Services Museum halls which will provide an appropriate approach to the new Hall of Memories by the middle of next year.
It is also expected that it will be possible to open to the public again the parts of the old building which have had to be closed during additions. Unfortunately, the lecture hall has had to be omitted from the building, and until it is possible to add this important feature, the former library will be used as a temporary assembly hall. The hall must first, however, be plastered or otherwise relined and reconditioned generally.
The Director's report outlines the possibility in respect of the preparation of the rest of the museum and the order in which this will be undertaken. It may be possible to re-open the library in the new building later in the present year. Book shelving from the old library
has been dismantled and is being built into the new block. The generous gift of £5,000 by the Sir John Logan Campbell Trustees will enable floor covering, curtains and other requirements to be provided for the whole of the library. The sum of £1,809 has been expended from our own funds in the provision of new steel shelving.
Honours. The well-deserved honour of the C.B.E. conferred on our Director by Her Majesty the Queen will give much pleasure to our members We also have pleasure in congratulating Miss E. E. Stephens, O.B.E., on the well-merited recognition given to her valuable services to education.
Royal Society of New Zealand. During the year the Council has given much consideration to proposals for greater financial assistance for that body, of which we are all members by reason of our membership of the Auckland Institute and Museum. During the year our members have voluntarily contributed £132 towards the Royal Society's share of the cost of the Darwin Centenary Research Expedition to the coast of Chile, in which two New Zealand scientists took part. This expedition, organised by the Royal Society of London, was sent as a tribute to Charles Darwin, the great scientist. His theories were partly developed during the expedition of the “Beagle” in the Pacific, during which he visited New Zealand in the year 1835. The New Zealand contribution to this expedition was in part a tribute by New Zealand to scientists who, since the days of Darwin, have taken part in the scientific exploration of this country.
Contributory Members to the Royal Society of New Zealand. As a result of discussion between the Royal Society of New Zealand and branch representatives, the proposal has been adopted that each member body of the Royal Society of New Zealand shall establish a class of members who will contribute annually to funds of the central body; a proposal for the alteration of the rules will be placed before the Annual Meeting to establish such a class of members who will each contribute 5/- per annum.
Formation of Auckland Maritime Society. During the year a new Society, the Auckland Maritime Society, was established to promote the study of ships and related subjects. The Society has been adopted as a section of the Auckland Institute and Museum; we welcome this new Society and hope that it will give pleasure and instruction to its members and to the citizens of Auckland. It is a project which should work in well with the development of the museum outlined in the Director's report.
Staff. Mr. P. J. O'Brien, the taxidermist and preparator, has unfortunately left us to take a position at the Otago Museum. Mr. O'Brien will be a great loss to our staff. Our members will be familiar with the extraordinarily good work that he has done during the six years he has been with us, and in particular will know the dioramas in the Natural History Hall. We are now three short in our staff—i.e., geologist, zoologist and preparator.
Members. Changes in membership are as follows: Life members (1958) 327; (1959) 340. Annual members (1958) 890; (1959) 875, Totals: (1958) 1,217; (1959) 1,215.
Obituary. We record with regret the deaths of Lady Gunson, O.B.E., Mrs. Selwyn Upton, Rt. Hon. Lord Bledisloe, Colonel W. W. Clemesha, C.I.E., Dr. A. G. Talbot and Messrs. W. Andrew, P. H. Basley, J. M. Carpenter, J. M. Frater, B. L. Hamilton, A. M. Henderson, H. K. Jones, W. G. Miller, M. E. Priestley, E. L. Wilcock, J. M. Wilson and G. Winstone.
Mrs. Selwyn Upton was with her brother the late Sir Cecil Leys, the donor of the largest collection received by the Museum, the important Edge-Partington collection of oceanic ethnology; Lady Gunson constantly supported the Museum's activities, particularly in relation to the annual native flower show; Mr. J. M. Frater was the donor of valuable Maori ornaments; Dr. Talbot was for 54 years a member in turn of the Canterbury and the Auckland Institutes. Lord Bledisloe's death marked the end of a life of devoted and distinguished service to the Empire and Commonwealth in administration, science, agriculture and education. The Auckland Institute was honoured to have him as a member.
Scenery Preservation. The Council, through its Scenery Preservation Committee, has given careful consideration to proposals from the Government for the development of electric power at the Aratiatia rapids and has urged the Hon. Minister to defer development until alternatives have been thoroughly examined.
The Institute. The customary Monday evening Institute lecture evenings were once more supported by very good attendances and members will wish to join in thanking the speakers for the very interesting addresses given.
Mr. V. F. Fisher, M. A., F.M.A.N.Z., “Historic Places, Maori and European”; Mr. T. A. Churton, “Psychology: its Relationship to Efficiency in Industry”; Mr. G. B. Bolt, O.B.E., F. R. Ae. S., “Aircraft and Engine Development”; Professor E. M. Blaiklock, M.A., Litt. D., “Troy in Fact and Fancy”; Dr. F. Burton, M.D. and Dr. B. F. Cain, M.Sc., Ph.D., D. Phil., “Experimental Cancer Chemotherapy at Auckland”.
The annual British Medical Association lecture was given by Dr. F. R. Chisholm, O.B.E., M.R.C.P., F.R.A.C.P., on “Caisson Sickness and Divers' and Aviators' Bends”; and Sir Edmund Hillary, K.B.E., gave a lecture illustrated by coloured lantern slides on “Antarctica”.
Attendances at the Sunday afternoon lectures also all filled the library; we make appreciative acknowledgments to Dr. A. W B. Powell, F.R.S.N.Z., F.M.A.N.Z., “Land Snails and Earth History”; Mr. J. Golson, M. A., “Recent Excavations by the Auckland University Archaeological Society”. Mr. V. F. Fisher, M. A., F.M.A.N.Z., “Polynesian Food Plants”, Mr. A. A. Kirk, B. A., “Shipping Incidents Around Our Coasts.”
Anthropology and Maori Race Section. This year, the Anthropology Seminar Room was used for monthly meetings. These were all well attended, and in two instances larger rooms in the main University block had to be used—i. e., for a lecture on “Maori Waiata by Colonel Awatere, and a demonstration of poi, haka, and action songs by the Auckland University Maori Club.
Other subjects presented in 1958 were “Linguistic Research in the South Seas,” by Dr. B. Biggs; “An Archaeologist Surveys Western Samoa”, by Mr. J. Golson; “Anthropological Research in Central New Guinea”, Mr. R. Bulmer; “Early Traditional History of the Arawa Tribe”, Mr. D. Stafford; “Village Life in Samoa”, Miss Susan Hirsch.
On May 2, 65 members and friends of the Section visited the Turangawaewae Marae, where the celebrations commemorating the Centenary of the King Movement were being held. We were welcomed on to the Marae in the traditional manner, after which a wide variety of items held the interest of the members. Altogether it was a most interesting and informative day. Our thanks are due to the Tribal Committee for their courtesy in inviting the Section to their Marae.
The Officers of the Section are: Patron, Dr. A. Spoehr, Director of the Bishop Museum, Honolulu; Chairman, Mr. J. Wartiti; Hon. Secretary and Treasurer, Mr. J. T. Diamond; Committee, Professor R. Piddington, Dr. B. Biggs, Miss I. Hamilton, Messrs. R. Bulmer, V. F. Fisher, J. Golson, E. Grimes, R. Scobie, Hon. Auditor, Mr. J. Prebble. The membership is 85.
Astronomical Society. The Auckland Astronomical Society reports the past year as one of the busiest and one of the most fruitful of its existence. After many years of enquiry and negotiation it has been offered a site, in the Winstone Park Domain, Mt. Roskill, for the proposed Sir Edmund Hillary Observatory; it is now conducting technical investigations as to seismological stability and freedom from industrial disturbance. It is about to launch a campaign for £25,000 for a building to house the £7,000 gift telescope offered by the late Mrs. Edith Winstone Blackwell, M.B.E.
The Society was gratified to hear of the Farmers Trading Company's generous gift to the Museum of a Spitz Planetarium; it will assist in any way required in the preparation of programmes.
The membership has increased by 50 to 230; very good meetings have been held and interesting lectures given. Many enquiries have been attended to and information given, especially on the making of telescopes. The Planetary Section, under Mr. J. B. Orr, has given special attention to the Sun, Jupiter and Saturn, and considerable photography has been accomplished.
The officers for 1959-60 are: President, L. A. Warner, M.Sc, F.R.A.S., Vice-President, K. D. Adams; Hon. Secretary, L. H. Beaumont, B. A., F.R.A.S.; Assistant-Secretary, T. Keenan; Hon. Treasurer, G. R. Green; Librarian, H. Todd; Curator of Instruments, B. D. Smith.
Conchology Section. Although this year has been a full one for the Section, we cannot say there has been anything of an outstanding nature. Attendances at our monthly meetings have been very good, and there has been an increase in membership, now making a total of 117. The Section's Annual Bulletin, No. 14, was published in November. This is a printed journal of 28 pages, including half-tone and line illustrations, and it contains ten original papers by members.
The death is recorded of Mrs. Mary Mouat, who had been a member of this Section since 1935. She played a very much appreciated role in interesting young people in collecting, and over the years was responsible for many children joining the Section.
Some time in November it is hoped, on completion of the extension to the Museum, that the Section may be able to hold its meeting in the more spacious room so generously provided, within the bounds of Dr. Powell's office. We feel sure that this will be of great convenience and comfort to all.
Maritime Section. The newly formed Auckland Maritime Society which has been accepted as a Section of the Institute and Museum, held its inaugural meeting in October when the first Committee was elected: Messrs. Clifford Hawkins (Chairman), A. A. Kirk, C. K. Hayward, A. Fisher and W. A. Laxon (Hon Secretary) The four meetings so far held included a viewing of slides of old ships and colour slides of present-day vessels, a visit to a liner in port, and an address by Captain Wann, of the Auckland Harbour Board, on his service with the Northern Steamship Company and experiences in the Merchant Navy during the last war. Model ships, navigation, ship photography and maritime history will be among the interests of members of the society.
Research. The “Records of the Auckland Institute and Museum” commenced its fifth volume with the following papers: R. C. Cooper, “Pohutukawa/Rata Cross No. 2, Variation in Metrosideros in New Zealand.” K. A. J. Wise, “Trichoptera of New Zealand, No. 1, with Descriptions of New Genera and New Species.” A. W. B. Powell, “Mollusca of the Kermadec Islands, 1”; “New Zealand Molluscan Systematics with Descriptions of New Species, No. 3”; “The Canoes of Geelvink Bay, Dutch New Guinea.” Gilbert Archey, “Tiki and Pou: Free Sculpture and Applied”. Guest author's studies on Auckland Museum collections were: G.T.S. Bayliss (University of Otago), “A Botanical Survey of the Small Islands of the Three Kings Group”; J. A. Hunter (D.S.I.R., Auckland), “Additional Notes on Tecomanthe speciosa from the Three Kings Islands”; E. T. Giles, “Dermaptera of the Three Kings Islands with Descriptions of New Species.”
Wellington Branch of the Royal Society of New Zealand.
Annual Report for the Year ended September 30, 1958.
Council. The Council has held seven meetings during the year under review, and the previous Council held one meeting prior to the Annual General Meeting.
Membership. The membership of the Branch is as follows (1957 totals in parentheses): Total, 452 (437); Ordinary, 313 (309); Life, 25 (25); Life Members of other Branches now attached to Wellington Branch, 10 (10); Associates, 104 (93); Number receiving Transactions, 251 (248). During the year 26 (21) new ordinary and associate members were elected, 2 (1) members transferred to the Branch, 8 (9) members resigned or died, and 5 (3) transferred to other branches.
The Council records with regret the death of Dr. H. H. Allan, a Past-President and Fellow of the Royal Society of New Zealand, and Dr. W. J. Hope-Robertson.
General Meetings. October, 1957, Annual General Meeting; Symposium on Satellites by Dr. L. A. Whale, I. L. Thomson, A. H. Allen, R. I. Skinner and G. Searle. “The Future of the Oil Industry,” by A. E. C. Drake (additional General Meeting). February, 1958: “Principles of Growth,” by Dr. J. Hammond (joint meeting with New Zealand Institute of Agricultural Science). March, 1958: “Technical Programmes in the Division of International Affairs of the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission,” by R. L. Kirk (joint meeting with Wellington Branch, New Zealand Institute of Chemistry and Wellington Branch, New Zealand Association of Scientists) April, 1958: “Science Teaching and Research in the University,” by Dr. G. A. Currie May, 1958: “Some Impressions of a World Tour,” by Professor L. H. Briggs (Presidential Address to the Royal Society of New Zealand). June, 1958: “New Zealand Geological Survey Expedition to Cape Hallett,” by Dr. H. J. Harrington. July, 1958: “Drawin and New Zealand Some Examples, Influences and Developments,” by Dr. C. A. Fleming (Hudson Lecture) August, 1958. “The Most for the Least: Every-day Problems in Optimization,” by Dr. P. Whittle September, 1958: “A Botanist Looks at New Zealand Science,” by Miss L. B. Moore (Branch Presidential Address).
Astronomy and Geophysics Section. October, 1958: Annual General Meeting; “Geophysics in the Thermal Area,” by N. Modriniak. May, 1958: “Oceanographic Research in Europe and America,” by J. W. Brodie. June, 1958: “The Attack on the Earth's Interior: An Account of Current Researches,” by Dr. F. F. Evison July, 1958: “The Aurora Australis: A Review of Thirty Years' Work in New Zealand,” by G. W. McQuistan. August, 1958: “Physics Teaching and Research in America and New Zealand. Now and in the Future,” Dr. C. D. Ellyett September, 1958: “Rock Magnetism, Polar Wandering, and Continental Drift,” by Dr. T. Hatherton.
Biology Section. October, 1957: Annual General Meeting; “Recent Summer Activities in Antarctica,” by R. E. Barwick. April, 1958: “Parasites of Man and Animals in the Canadian Arctic,” by Dr. L. K. Whitten. May, 1958: “Biological Work at Taita Experimental Station,” a symposium by N. H. Taylor, A. P. Druce, Dr. R. H. Thornton and Dr. D. J. Ross. June, 1958: “Climate ad Marine Ecology in West Africa,” by A. R. Longhurst. July, 1958: “Reproductive Studies on the Red Algae,” by Dr. R. Morris. August, 1958: “Biological Programme of the Transantarctic Expedition,” by Dr. R. W. Balham. September, 1958: “New Zealand Indigenous Forests—Past, Present and Future,” by A. L. Poole.
Geology Section. October, 1958: Annual General Meeting; “Petrological Provinces in New Zealand,” by Dr. H. J. Harrington. April, 1958: “The Common Denominator in Tectonics, Seismology, and Gravity,” by G. Lensen. May, 1958: Geological Observations in the Dry Valley Area of the Central Ross Dependency,” by C. B. McKelvey and P. Webb. June, 1958: “A New Zealand Geologist at Home in New Caledonia,” by G. W. Grindley. July, 1958: “Geology, Faithful Handmaiden of the Pedologist in the Pacific Islands,” by C. Wright. August, 1958: “Geophysics and Geology of the Seas Surrounding New Zealand,” a Symposium by R. E. Dibble and others. September, 1958: “Subdivision of the New Zealand Quaternary,” by R. P. Suggate.
Physics Section. October, 1957: “High Energy Particle Accelerators,” by Professor W. Walker. May, 1958: “Semi-Conductors and Transistors,” by Professor G. A. Peddie. June, 1958: “Physics Looks at Plant Physiology,” by R. Closs. July, 1958: Radio Signals That Should Never Have Been Received: An Account of V.H.F. Forward Scatter Propagation,” by J. Mawdsley. August, 1958: “Some Studies of the Aurora and Associated Upper Atmosphere Phenomena from Invercargill,” by R. S. Unwin and M. F. Gadsen September, 1958: “Natural Radiocarbon in the Study of Circulation in Atmosphere, Ocean, and Groundwater,” by G. J. Fergusson.
Social Science Section. October, 1957: Annual General Meeting; “Psychology in Prisons,” a Symposium. May, 1958: “Indonesian Independence and Instability,” by Professor L. H. Palmier. June, 1958: “Pacific Minorities in New Zealand,” by the Rev. R. L. Challis. July, 1958: “Current Developments in Economics,” by Professor H. Belshaw. August, 1958: Panel Discussion on Town Planning, by J. W. Cox, T. S. Patience and M. Patience September, 1958: “Co-ordination of Welfare Services,” by Professor W. Minn.
Technology Section. October, 1957: Annual General Meeting; High and Low Temperature Corrosion in Boilers,” by G. F. J. Murray. April, 1958: The Construction of a Hydro Power Station,” by P. W. Blakely. May, 1958: “Production Methods in a Tyre Factory,” by A Armishaw; “Natural and Synthetic Rubbers,” by G Peare, both at Dunlops (N. Z.) Factory, Upper Hutt. June, 1958: “A Review of the Operations at the Tasman Pulp and Paper Co.'s Mills, Kawerau,” by B. R. Law. July, 1958: “Planning a Modern Building,” by E. A. Plishke, at Massey House. August, 1958: “Engineering Problems and Techniques in Antarctica,” by M. R Ellis. September, 1958: “Futuie Trends of Aviation in New Zealand, and Aviation Research,” by E. A. Gibson.
Distinctions. Council is pleased to record the following distinctions: Sir Ernest Marsden, knighted, New Year's Honours List, 1958, for whom the Branch held an informal sherry party in February. Dr. T. Hatherton, O.B.E., Birthday Honours List, 1958. T. A. Rafter, O.B.E., Birthday Honours List, 1958. W. H. Ward, Fellowship of the Institute of Physics. Dr. L. Bastings, Honorary Fellowship of the New Zealand Institute of Architects. Dr. T. Hatherton, Polar Medal. C. E. Ingham, Polar Medal.
Hudson Lecture. The Hudson Lecture for 1958 was given by Dr. C. A. Fleming, New Zealand Geological Survey, D.S.I.R., who spoke on “Darwin and New Zealand: Some Examples, Influences, and Developments” The lecture will be printed in the Proceedings of the Society.
Library and Change of Rules. At a Special General Meeting held on April 23, 1958, an amendment was made to the Branch Rules.
Rule 25, which reads: “The Society shall devote not less than one-third of its annual revenue towards the support of the Library of the Society,” was revoked, and the following substituted: “The Society shall devote not less than one-sixth of its annual revenue towards the extension and maintenance of the Royal Society of New Zealand.” In general terms, the one-sixth contribution to the parent body, together with the current cost of maintaining the library at its present level, is equivalent to the previous obligatory one-third contribution to the support of the Branch Library.
At the same meeting, a motion that the Wellington Branch discontinues maintaining its library was lost by the casting vote of the chairman. This matter had been held over from the previous Annual General Meeting.
A further motion that the balance of the Library Fund be expended for such purposes as filling gaps in periodical series, cataloguing, binding and securing microfilm copies of material appropriate to the content of the library was carried.
Although the expenditure has been approved by the Council, work on the cataloguing of the library has not yet commenced through the lack of a suitably trained person to undertake the work.
Subscriptions to periodicals have been maintained. No books or new periodicals have been added to the library.
Darwin Expedition. Following an invitation by the parent body for contributions to assist in financing an additional New Zealand member to the Darwin Expedition to Chile. your Council decided to contribute £50 from the Branch funds. At the same time, an appeal to members to contribute on a personal basis has resulted in a further £25 coming forward to the parent body to date.
Thanks. The Council wishes to express its thanks to all who have contributed during the past year to the success of meetings and other activities of the Branch; and to the New Zealand Association of Scientists for publication of addresses presented at meetings; to the Dominion Museum authorities for continued use of facilities; to the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research for use of the Council room; to the Victoria University of Wellington
for the use of the Staff Common Room and other facilities; and to the Press for reporting meetings.
For and on behalf of the Council,
Lucy B. Moore,
L. J. Rollo,
Canterbury Branch of the Royal Society of New Zealand.
Annual Report for the Year ended October 31, 1958.
During 1958 the composition of the Council has remained unchanged. Mr. G. Knox was congratulated on his inclusion in the Darwin Expedition and granted leave of absence in August. A general appeal to members to support the Expedition so that a geologist could be included resulted in £50.14s being donated.
In recognition of his services as supper convener at Society meetings for many years the Council presented Mr. C. W. Collins with a standard lamp at its April meeting.
An ever increasing volume of business continues to be submitted to branches by the parent body.
Planetarium. As is probably well known, a sub-committee of the Council convened by Dr. C. D. Ellyett, opened an appeal this year for funds for the purchase of a Planetarium to be installed in the Canterbury Museum. A sum of £1,517 was raised, but the Minister of Customs then refused to grant an import licence. The appeal was halted at this stage. Several suggestions for alternate methods of finance have been followed up, without success; but the project is definitely being vigorously pursued and it is hoped by the committee that the realisation of a Planetarium for Christchurch will be achieved in 1959.
Membership. The membership of the Branch shows a steady increase in 1958. Thirty-one full members and four associate members joined. These were offset by resignations and transfers; so that the membership of the Branch is 414 full members (including honorary and life members), 13 associate members, and 7 on the retired list.
Meetings. The year 1958 has seen a change in the location of the meetings of the Society from the University of Canterbury to the Lecture Theatre in the Centennial Wing of the Canterbury Museum. The Council has placed on record its appreciation of the facilities afforded for many years by the University.
Society meetings have been well attended, with an average of 82 and a maximum of 200. Meetings were held as follows—December, 1957: Annual Meeting; “Sputnikology—the Study of Sputniks,” Dr. R. A. Anderson and Mr. C. L. S. Keay. March 5, 1958: “Operations in Antarctica,” Rear-Admiral George Dufek. April 2: “Some Recent Impressions of America and American Science,” Dr. C. D. Ellyett. May 7: Presidential Address, “The Inventiveness of Animals,” Dr. R. Pilgrim. June 4. “Scientific and Engineering Training in China,” Mr. P. J. Alley. July 2: Chalklin Lecture, “Modern Research on the Atomic Nucleus,” Professor D. Walker. July 16 (Special Meeting to commemorate the Darwin Centennial): “Some Problems of the Origin of Species,” Dr. E. J. Godley. August 6 (Papers Evening): The following papers were read: “Profile of a Chatham Island Peat,” Mr. N. Moar; “A Census of Fossil Localities in the Alpine Facies of the South Island,” Mr. J. D. Campbell; “Rainbow Trout in Lake Lyndon: a Review of Ten Years' Netting,” Professor E. Percival and Mr. A. M. R. Burnet. September 3: “Process, Stage and Future Prospects of Growth in Metropolitan Christchurch,” Dr. L. Pownall October 1: Presentation of Hector Medal and Cooper Award to Professor A. G. McLellan and Dr. C. D. Ellyett; “Theory and Experiment in Physics,” Professor A. G. McLellan October 22 (Special Meeting): “The Next 50 Years the Plants By Which We Shall Live,” Dr. O. H. Frankel. November 5: “Playing Games to Study Thinking,” Mr. G. Shouksmith.
At its October meeting the Society honoured two of its members who had gained distinctions. They were Dr. C. D. Ellyett, who received the Cooper Memorial Award, and Professor A. G. McLellan, who received the Hector Medal and Prize. Both presentations were made by the President of the Royal Society of New Zealand, Professor R. S. Allan. On behalf of the Branch Dr. Pilgrim welcomed Mrs. Cooper, widow of the late Dr. E. R. Cooper, to the meeting, and Mrs. Allan presented her with a spray.
Newsletter. One newsletter was issued for the year.
Obituary: Sir James Hight. Sir James Hight retired from the Chair of History and Political Science at Canterbury University College in 1948. He was a great and beloved teacher. His service to the University and to his College was long continued and admirable. Scholarship is the poorer by his passing, but generations of students are the richer for his influence and his example. By his death on May 17, 1958, the Canterbury Branch lost one of its senior and most distinguished members.
Report of the Honorary Treasurer. The end of the financial year has shown a satisfactory excess of income over expenditure of £61 10s 3d The unusually large balance at the Bank of New Zealand is due to the inability of the Society to pay B. H. Blackwell's account for the
Proceedings of the Royal Society and overseas periodicals: the Customs Department did not allow the Society an import licence for the year ended December 31, 1958, and consequently the Society could not remit money to England during the year. The amount due, however, has been incorporated under the heading of Library Expenses, and the corresponding entry shown in Sundry Creditors.
Subscriptions amounting to £50 14s were received for the Darwin Centennial Expedition, and this amount will be remitted to the Royal Society in Wellington.
The 1957 credit shown as a deduction from the Royal Society's account in the Income and Expenditure Account, is the amount of an overestimation of representatives' expenses in 1957.
Owing to the increase in membership of the Society, the honorary officers would be greatly helped if honorary assistants could be appointed to help with the increased administrative work.
Report of the Hon Librarian. The year 1958 has seen a great improvement in the physical condition of the joint libraries of the Society and of the University of Canterbury, for after various delays there was opened at the end of May a considerable extension providing shelving for many thousands of books and seating for two hundred more readers. This was secured by the use of the former School of Art building nearby and by linking it to the original Library building by a new circulation and catalogue hall containing a new main entrance to the whole area. Already readers are taking advantage of the more numerous and more convenient seats and the quieter conditions to such an extent that it is clear that the present greatly improved quarters will be under pressure before a new building is available on the University's Riccarton site. Meanwhile our members can enjoy better facilities than formerly, although they may be affected somewhat by the University Library's change in lending policy whereby periodicals and reference books are now normally to be read within the building. On the other hand, the establishment of photocopying facilities, by microfilm and other processes, has gone one stage further; and, while its full development awaits the appointment, perhaps in 1960, of a photographic technician, already some work can be undertaken. The Society's Library continues to benefit by donations from institutions and individuals, including four of our members, Messrs. C. E. Fenwick, A. C. Macintyre, D. B. Mulligan and C. R. Russell, who present current periodicals of considerable value.
Report of Representative on the Riccarton Bush Board of Trustees—In the last twelve months the Riccarton Bush Trustees have held meetings in March, June and August. The business before the meetings has been concerned mainly with the upkeep of the buildings on the area. Authority was given for the appointment of a man to assist the ranger, and student labour has been used during vacations. With this assistance the new ranger has been able to make noticeable progress in clearing thickets of introduced plants. The Trustees have also taken steps to ensure a wider distribution of the booklet describing the Bush.
Report of the Representative on the Canterbury Museum Trust Board. The most important action of the Board this year has been the re-opening of the Museum after a closure of three years. During this period, the Centennial Wing has been added and the original building has been extensively remodelled.
The Governor-General of New Zealand, Viscount Cobham, declared the Museum open before a large gathering of wellwishers on November 10, and gave the public its first view of the results of intensive efforts by the staff to present material in a modern fashion.
Field Club Section. This year the club completed 21 years of existence. The year was marked by an increase in the amount of interest shown by members. With the completion of the Centennial Wing of the Canterbury Museum, it was possible to return there for our winter programme of lecture evenings. Thanks are due to our Patron, Dr. R. Duff, for permitting this. Total membership has increased by 3, despite 13 resignations, some of which were due to members transferring to other centres. There are now 36 Royal Society members and 27 Section members, giving a total of 63. The committee lost the services of Mr. M. Mannering early in the year. Mr. E. G. Tuibott was co-opted in his place. He has been a great help in making arrangements for the use of the Museum facilities.
At the close of the financial year £16.15s was held in the Post Office Savings Bank and Cash in Hand stood at £1.8s 9d.
Trips this year were made by means of private cars This proved most satisfactory as it reduced both the cost of outings and the amount of arranging usually necessary. Places visited were: Birdling's Flat (December, 1957), Foxes Creek and the Onepunga District (both in February, 1958), Gebbies Pass-McQueen's Valley (March), Wharfdale Track, Oxford (May), and a trip led by Mr. Metcalfe of the Botanic Gardens to Mt. Pleasant (September).
Evening programmes were held in the Staff Room of the Canterbury Museum, with the exception of that for August, which was used as an anniversary evening. On this occasion the Section acted as host to the Royal Society as well as to other natural history clubs and also tramping and alpine clubs. Nearly 100 people attended and enjoyed the remarkable slides
shown by Mr. Watson, who was, incidentally, an ex-Field Club member who gained an interest in speleology through a Section trip to Broken River.
Lectures were: (April), E. Turbott, “An Introduction to the Natural History Study Collections of the Canterbury Museum.” May: B. Gunn, “Experiences of the New Zealand Group in Antarctica”. June: H. Gair, “A Geologist in Rhodesia”. July: J. Humphries, “Cape Hallet Base”. August: L. Watson, “The Underground Caves of the Waikato”. September: Messrs. Hitchings and Turbott, “The 1957–58 Canterbury Museum Expedition to Fiordland”. October: Annual General Meeting, followed by two films.
Being an affiliated member of the Youth Hostels Association has made much useful data available to the Section. Members are invited to use this information through the secretary.
Mathematics and Physics Section. With a total of over 130 members and an average attendance of 46 at the evening meetings, the Section continues to flourish, and at the end of its fifth year may be considered to be well and truly established.
Since many of the Section's members are not physicists or mathematicians by profession, the policy has been to have few specialist addresses and many addresses of a more general nature, frequently on topics on the borderline of physics or mathematics and some other discipline. It has been encouraging to notice the response to this policy from specialists in these neighbouring subjects.
Two very successful visits have been held during the year. Thanks are due to Dr. A. J. Campbell and his staff for a very interesting evening inspecting the radio-cobalt unit and the isotope laboratories at the Public Hospital, and also to Mr. I. Cashin and his staff for a delightful day inspecting harbour installations at Lyttelton.
The meetings held during the year were: March 20: “Deafness and Hearing Aids,” Mr. J. A. Sandle March 28: “Health and Radiation,” Mr. J. F. Healy. May 29: “Punched Card Systems,” Mr. V. Hindmarsh. June 26: “The Evidence of Things Unseen,” Mr. E. Mangin. July 24: “The Use of Realization Techniques to Establish Electrical Analogs for Earthquake Resistant Structures.” September 25: “Rock Magnetism, Polar Wandering and Continental Drift,” Dr. T. Hatherton. October 30: “The Development of Chemical Industry in New Zealand,” Professor S. R. Siemon.
Officers elected for 1959 are: Chairman, Mr. D. B. Mulligan; Secretary, Mr. R. Currie; Committee—Messrs. R. S. Long and G. Greenway.
Otago Branch of the Royal Society of New Zealand.
Annual Report for Session 1958 (89th Session).
There has again been an increase in membership, largely as a result of the membership drive initiated in 1957 and continued this year The membership of the Branch now stands at 193, an increase of 20 since last year.
During the year Dr. F. G. Soper was elected a Vice-President of the Royal Society of New Zealand.
Our President, Dr. Brewin, was awarded the D.Sc. degree by the University of New Zealand, as also was Professor W. E. Adams.
Mr. L. Lockerbie was awarded the Percy Smith Medal for research in Anthropology.
Mr. O. H. Keys, on the Council for a number of years, formerly President and latterly a delegate to the Royal Society Council, has recently been transferred to Auckland, where he has been appointed Government analyst.
Attendances at Branch Meetings. 45, 115, 60, 55, 65, 50, 54. Average, 63.
Mathematics-Physics Section: An attempt was made to form such a section of the Otago Branch, and early in the year a circular letter was sent to people likely to be interested. However, the response did not appear sufficiently good to warrant further moves in this direction and the matter has been held over in the meantime.
Otago Museum. The Society has again been represented on the Museum Trust Board by Professor Baylis. The plans for the Museum Extension have been completed, and the details of the auditorium which will be used by the Otago Branch have been submitted to your Council for comment. The detailed arrangements of seating, lighting, etc., have been discussed and a list of our requirements submitted to the Museum Trust Board.
The Otago Branch again combined with the Association of Friends of the Museum at the Museum Conversazione, the most interesting feature of which was a discussion of Maori musical instruments by Miss M. A. Martin, and the playing of several examples by Professor Platt, Mr. Gathercole and Mr. Ken Smith.
Royal Society of New Zealand. The Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand are now published separately for issue to all members. The matter of financial contribution to the R.S.N.Z. will again be discussed at the Annual Meeting in Napier, but it appears reasonably certain that of the subscription moneys a contribution of about 5s per member will be levied on Branches.
Otago Branch Constitution. The constitution of the Otago Branch was last printed 23 years ago, and the number of changes made since then have rendered it desirable to issue a new copy. This, together with the impending changes in financial contribution to the Royal Society of New Zealand, led to a review of the whole constitution by your Council, resulting in a number of proposed alterations about which members have already been advised.
Darwin-Wallace Centenary. To celebrate the centenary of the presentation of Darwin's and Wallace's ideas on the origins of species, the Royal Society of London intends to launch a scientific expedition to South America, and a preliminary expedition is at present in Chile. This includes three New Zealanders and the R.S.N.Z. is paying the expenses of one of these (£700). To lighten the drain on funds (an approach to the Government was not successful) an appeal for contributions has been made to members throughout New Zealand. A donation of £10 has been made from Otago Branch Funds, and the total received so far in Wellington is just over £100.
Main Branch Meetings. These were held as advised in the printed programme. April 15: Dr. Beryl I. Brewin, Department of Zoology, Presidential Address, “The Vertebrate Pedigree and the Ascidians.” May 6: Professor D. B. Sawyer, Department of Mathematics, University of Otago, “Rockets and Satellites”. June 10: Dr. E. J. Godley, Director Botany Division, D.S.I.R., “Some Problems of the Origins of Species”. July 8: Professor A. K. McIntyre, Department of Physiology, University of Otago: “Physiological Problems of Space Travel”. August 12: Dr. D. A. Brown, Department of Geology, Professor G. T. S. Baylis, Department of Botany, and Dr. R. R. Forster, Director, Otago Museum, “The Problem of Continental Drift”. September 9: Professor J. A. R. Miles, Department of Microbiology, University of Otago, “Virus and Cell”. October 7: Professor B. J. Marples, Department of Zoology, University of Otago, “Lakes”. November 18: Annual General Meeting.
Historical Section. During the year the section held eight meetings, which were largely attended, the average audience being about 40 persons. One meeting was a joint meeting with the International Affairs Society, at which Professor Izuka spoke on “The Rise of Nationalism in Asia, with Special Reference to Japan” Other speakers were Dr. A. H. McLintock, on “Crown Colony Government in New Zealand”, Professor B. J. Marples on “Mediaeval Castles”, Dr. R. Sinclair on the “Re-writing of New Zealand History”, Professor G. S. Graham on “Sea Power and Imperialism from the Sixteenth Century”, Professor E. H. Brookes on “Racial Interests and Conflicts in South Africa”, a symposium on “Landmarks in the History of Science,” to which Dr. H. Silverstone, Mr. R. G. Robinson and Dr. J. N. Dodd contributed, and finally Mrs. G. M. Strathern, on “The Resources of the Hocken Library”.
Astronomical Section. The Committee regrets the loss from the Committee of Mr. E. W. Chrisp because of a transfer to Timaru. Mr. Chrisp at one period was Director of the Beverly-Begg Observatory, and also carried out valuable research work on star colours 20 years ago.
Beverly-Begg Observatory: The Saturday night public sessions continue to attract many visitors from near and afar; from mid-April until the end of September the Observatory was open to the public on all Saturday evenings when conditions were deemed favourable These sessions were conducted by Committee members on a rota system, assisted by associates and members of the Telescope Makers' Club. Some 315 members of the public visited the Observatory In addition to the Saturday night sessions, many private parties have, by arrangement, been entertained at the Observatory on other nights of the week. Collections amounted to £11.1s 6d, compared with £14.0s 6d in 1957.
Equipment: The various items of equipment in the Observatory have been carefully maintained and are in good condition.
Occultations: The Observatory Director, Mr. Doig, reports having successfully timed 18 lunar occultations, out of 40 attempted. Results were duly forwarded, as usual, to Greenwich.
Conjunction: During the early evening of September 16, a very rare and arresting spectacle was witnessed by many in this province—the conjunction of the planet Jupiter with the crescent Moon. Conditions for viewing this phenomenon were ideal. The Moon, then about two and a-half days old, appeared as a thin crescent with the earthshine quite noticeable, and Jupiter, at one stage, appeared to graze the upper cusp of our satellite.
Aurorae: Some exceptionally fine displays of the Aurora Australis were noted at various times throughout the year, especially during February. Records of some of these displays have been forwarded to Carter Observatory by Mr. Doig.
Sputniks: Sputnik II was observed by members, before it descended into denser atmosphere and disintegrated. Sputnik III has not been sighted locally.
Annexe: At a special Committee meeting in March it was decided to engage a builder to complete the building of the Annexe under contract. This was done, the cost being £356. All that now remains is the spouting, downpipe, painting, interior lining and electric installations, and this work is being carried out on a voluntary basis by three of our most enthusiastic
members—Messrs. Doig, Campbell and Frew, with assistance by others of our Society and the Telescope Makers' Club. To these gentlemen we extend our grateful thanks and appreciation for a fine job now almost completed and carried out in expert manner in their spare time at week-ends over a very considerable period.
Vandalism: Damage has been done to the outside light socket on the wall near the door, and, more recently, youths have been climbing on to the roof and tampering with the holding down ropes of the shutter within the dome.
Membership: The roll now stands at seven full members, and twenty-six associate members. The sub-section (the Telescope Makers' Club) has 18 financial members.
Original Papers. “A Land Planarian from Samoa,” by Marion L. Fyfe (Zoology Department) “The Classification and Reproductive Organs of New Zealand Land Planarians. Part V,” by Marion L. Fyfe. “Notes on the Behaviour of Two Estuarine Crab Species”, by C. G. Beer (Zoology Department). Submitted by Dr. Brewin, Mr. Beer not being a member).
Nelson Branch of the Royal Society of New Zealand.
Annual Report for Year ended September 30, 1958.
The Committee met six times during the year. In addition, several members attended meetings of Sub-committees.
Membership. A campaign for increased membership was conducted at the beginning of the year. Leaflets, prepared by the previous committee, giving information on the Royal Society of New Zealand and the activities of the local branch, were distributed and a personal approach made to likely members. The campaign met with considerable success and 54 new members joined the Branch. During the year two full members and one associate member resigned on leaving the district, and the total membership now stands at 90—comprising 64 full members, 25 associate members, and one student member. The membership is likely to continue increasing during the next session.
Constitution. Certain alterations to the Constitution, made necessary by the change of name of the Branch were adopted, and rules for the election of Honorary Members were amended.
Meetings. The programme, based as far as possible on subjects of current scientific interest, included three lectures dealing with different aspects of radioactivity and nuclear power. The first of these was a public lecture given by Mr. T. A. Rafter, Director of the Division of Nuclear Sciences of the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research.
The lecture programme was as follows: October, 1957: Annual Meeting; “The Sun,” by Mr. E. L. Morley. April, 1958: “A Trip Through the High Country of Marlborough,” by Mr. R. S. S. Meredith May: Public Lecture, “Radioactive Fallout from Bomb Tests and Its Effects on Man,” by Mr. T. A. Rafter June: “Uranium Mining in North America,” by Mr. T. J. McKee. July: “The Layman and the Atom,” by Mr. C. I. Kidson August “Hydatids,” by Dr. R. R. W. Morrison.
The September meeting took the form of a conversazione held in the buildings of the Entomology Division of the D. S. I. R. Scientific exhibits, colour slides, and scientific films were shown and the function concluded with supper.
Finances. The financial position can be regarded as fairly satisfactory. A balance of approximately £45 carried forward from last year is still carried forward. However, amounts due to the parent body as a result of the year's activities—viz., our contribution under the rules, of one-sixth income; extra Transactions for new members; and Proceedings for all full members, will reduce this balance by approximately £25.
The increased income due to increased membership made possible an expansion of the Branch's activities to include a public lecture and a social function. It has also permitted the use of printed letterheads and envelopes, cyclostyled notices, the posting of Transactions to members, and improved advertising. A donation of £5 was made towards the expenses of a geologist with the Darwin Centennial Expedition.
Royal Society of New Zealand. Dr. H. O. Askew, our representative on the Council of the Royal Society, attended both the November and the May meetings of the Council.
Birthday Honours. The congratulations of the Branch have been conveyed to Dr. D. Miller, who was awarded the C.B.E. in the recent Birthday Honours. Dr. Miller has been a member since 1929. During that time he has been President of the Branch, has been the Representative on the Council of the Royal Society, and has held office as Dominion President.
Nelson Centenary. Two exhibits were organised by the Branch for the Historical Exhibition held as part of the Nelson City Centenary celebrations in September. They were (1) the development of the mineral resources of the district and (2) an X-ray machine of 1903 with its original gas engine, both functioning; and certain other early scientific apparatus. The first exhibit was assembled by Mr. E. S. Gourlay and the second by Mr. R. S. S. Meredith.
Thanks. The thanks of the Branch are tendered to those who gave the excellent series of lectures this year. We are very much indebted to Mr. T. A. Rafter for making a special journey to deliver his public lecture in May, an excellent and thought-provoking address on a subject of world-wide importance. Thanks are also due to those who helped with the conversazione, including members of the staffs of the Nelson Hospital Laboratory, the Horticulture Division of the Department of Agriculture, and to Miss M. Orr, Miss D. Read, and Miss R. Johnson.
We also gratefully acknowledge the amount of work done by Messrs. Gourlay and Meredith in preparing a very creditable Royal Society bay in the Centenary Historical Exhibition, and the help given by the State Hydro Electricity Department, the demonstrators and attendants, and those who so willingly lent exhibits.
Southland Branch of the Royal Society of New Zealand.
Annual Report for the Year ended March 31, 1959.
Membership. The Branch's membership for the year ended March 31, 1959, was 51, with six Life Members.
Meetings. In all we had eight meetings with an average attendance of 20 persons. May 7: Dr. R. Burns Watson, “Surgical Shock and Modern Resuscitation Methods” (Presidential Address). June 18 Mr. Ian McKellar, “N.Z. Geological Survey's Expedition to Antarctica” July 16 Mr. Seal, “Pollination by Honey Bees”. August 20 Dr. Gadsden and Mr. R. S. Unwin, “Investigation in the Upper Atmosphere Above Invercargill”. September 17. Mr. Isaacs, “The Work of a Veterinary Surgeon” October 30. Mr. B. L. Wood, “The Work in Adelaide of a Geological Conference” November 27 Professor Nehr, “Cosmic Research” March 26: Mr. Alan Melhop, “Modern Advances in the Internal Combustion Engine.”
It would be fitting at this time to state that during the year the Branch suffered the loss of Mr. Ian McKellar, of the Geological Survey, who was for some time our efficient secretary. Mr. McKellar and his two associates, Mr. Mutch and Mr. Wood, have at all times been a tower of strength to the Branch both in providing speakers and by their regular attendance at meetings.
It is with regret that we lose them to the Otago Branch. During the year the Branch contributed £10.10s in support of the Darwin Memorial Expedition.
We are very grateful to the speakers who have addressed us during the year and for providing such interesting and instructive programmes of lectures.
Waikato Scientific Association.
Annual Report for the Year ended October 31, 1958.
I have pleasure in presenting on behalf of your Executive the Thirteenth Annual Report of the Association.
Executive. At the Annual Meeting on November 21, 1957, the following officers were elected. President, Mr. A. G. Yarrall, Vice-President, Mr. W. F. Rolt, Secretary, Mr. D. O'Hare, Treasurer, Miss W. G. Tinsley, Committee—Messrs R. R. White, C. G. Hunt, J. Adam and J. Miller. The Executive met 11 times during the year.
Membership. The membership roll now stands at 71. There were nine resignations, two memberships lapsed and 14 new members enrolled during the year, giving a net gain of three.
Life Member. It is with great pleasure that I have to report that Mr. R. E. R. Grimmett, late Superintendent of Rukuhia Soil Research Station, has been elected a life member of the Association. Mr. Grimmett was a prime mover in establishing the Association and was the first president. He has always been a most active member until his departure from Hamilton earlier in the year.
Lectures. The main activity during the year has been the arranging of a series of lectures of general interest. This year we have had a very good selection of speakers, covering a wide range of subjects. The present improvement in funds should enable the incoming Executive to spend rather more than in the past on expenses incurred in procuring suitable speakers from other centres. Seven lectures were given as follows: —March 20 Mr. K. J. McNaught, M.Sc., “A Tour of Agricultural Research Centres Overseas”. April 17 Mr. D. Stanley, M. A, “Kennedy Bay Expedition”. May 15: Mr. D. E. Roberts, “Photo-engraving Production”. June 19: Mr. F. D. Dorofaeff, B.Sc., “Some Impressions of Agricultural Life in Java”. July 17: Mr. A. G. Yarrall (Presidential Address), “Some Aspects of the Manufacture of Dairy Products”. August 21: Mr. J. Cordon, M.A., Dip.Ed., “The Educational Care of Backward Children”. October 16: Mr. J. Golson, M.A. (Cantab), “Some Aspects of Archaeology in New Zealand” The average attendance at general meetings was about 30,
which is somewhat disappointing, though at several meetings the attendance was considerably larger.
Demonstration Evenings. A break with tradition was made this year when the Demonstration Evenings were held in the Fraser Wing of the Hamilton Technical College on the evenings of September 10 and 11. The demonstrations were a great success, being visited by about 1,300 people. A great deal of interest and goodwill was generated in the activities of the Association. Your Executive recommends that the Demonstration Evenings should be held annually, at least for the next year or so, and to be held on two evenings only on each occasion.
Our thanks are due primarily to the Hamilton Technical College authorities for the use of the College premises and facilities.
We are indebted to the following exhibitors for displaying some very interesting items:— N.Z. Electricity Department: High voltage testing equipment, model transmission towers, and display material. Hamilton Tomo Group: Slides, exhibits of specimens found in caves and equipment. Auckland Industrial Development Laboratories: Display of measuring equipment and application as well as standards of measure. Mr. C. G. Hunt and co-workers: Natural sciences. Mr. R. Hambling: Native wood collection. Ruakura Animal Research Station: Film and talk on latest developments in facial eczema research. Rukuhia Soil Research Station: Radioactivity measurement and use of radioactive tracers in plant research. Hamilton Astronomical Society: Grinding of mirrors and exhibition of astronomical equipment. Hamilton Amateur Radio Society: Radio equipment and amateur radio station in action. Waikato Hospital: Blood typing and transfusion service. United Kingdom Trade Commissioner: Films and display material. United States Embassy: Films. U.S.S.R. Embassy: Films. N.Z. Geological Survey: Geology. Our thanks are due to Mr. F. Tonar and his group of co-workers for so ably operating the film projectors.
Field Trips. A tour of historical places in the Te Awamutu district was abandoned on account of difficulties in financing the trip.
A field trip to L.D.S. College, Ruakura and Rukuhia, with the Rotorua Philosophical Society as our guests, fell through because of lack of support from Rotorua.
Museum. A public meeting to form a Museum Society, arranged to be held in June, was abandoned when it was found that the Historical Society and the Waikato Winter Show Association had linked together to develop an historical museum in the William Paul Building.
Financial. The financial position has improved this year because of donations amounting to £37 12s being received at the Demonstration Evenings. After expenses had been met a net return of £20 4s was banked. Even allowing for the receipts from the Demonstration Evenings the financial position is satisfactory; the Association held its own and with a few new members the position is a little brighter. However, our liability to the Royal Society is still a source of worry. One-sixth of our 1956–57 subscription income, amounting to £6.8s 5d, was paid to the Royal Society as well as travelling expenses of £7 6s 10d.
Royal Society of New Zealand. The Royal Society of New Zealand has put forward proposals that a per capita levy be made on members of member bodies. The Waikato Scientific Association has submitted a scheme for voluntary membership in the Royal Society. The matter is still under consideration.
Our delegate, Mr. R. R. White, attended the half-yearly meeting in November, 1957, and the Annual Meeting in May, 1958.
Hawke'S Bay Branch of the Royal Society of New Zealand, Incorporated.,
Annual Report for the Year ended December 31, 1958.
It is my privilege to present this annual report of the Hawke's Bay Branch of the Royal Society of New Zealand.
This has been a successful year for the Branch. In addition to our normal activities, we conducted for the first time a competition for the Colenso Memorial Prize. During the year, the National Council of the Royal Society of New Zealand held a meeting in Napier.”
Meetings. At the Annual General Meeting, Mr. Borthwick, of Shell, addressed a well-attended meeting on the subject of “Production and Refining of Petroleum”.
The three quarterly meetings were addressed by: Mr. J. J. Molloy, “Science in the Freezing Industry” Dr. D. A. Bathgate, Mr. J. K. Agnew and Mr. N. L. Elder, Symposium on Kapiti. Mr. S. Meads, “Maori Art.”
It is pleasing to note that some of these meetings filled the Art Gallery to capacity.
Colenso Memorial Prize. This was the first year of this competition, and it was highly successful. There were fourteen entries, and the general quality of the papers was impressive, many being of first-rate quality. Our thanks go to Mr. N. L. Elder and Mr. P. B. Mackay
for their work in judging these entries. This Memorial Prize is to be an annual event and present indications are that it will do much towards stimulating interest among the young scientists of the district.
National Council Meeting. In early December, the National Council of the Royal Society of New Zealand held a meeting in Napier. Your President and Secretary were invited to this meeting as observers and the information they received will help in the running of this Branch. In the evening, Professor Allen addressed a packed house on “The Birth and Reception of an Idea”. An excellent address.
Next morning members of the National Council met members of the Branch Council, when many matters of mutual interest were discussed. Members have probably had a report of this meeting.
Sections. The Historical Section held eight meetings during the year. The Meteorological Section also held eight meetings.
Membership. Membership stands at 75 full members and six life members. During the year it was found necessary to raise the subscription to enable a 5s per member levy to be paid to the parent body.
This has been a successful year wherein foundations have been laid that should lead to a still more successful year to follow.
Rotorua Branch of the Royal Society of New Zealand.
Annual Report for 1958.
The year has been a usual one, with seven ordinary meetings, including a symposium and an evening of papers on local research. There were also an evening devoted to a panel and one special meeting. The programme was as follows: “The Royal Society,” Presidential Address. Symposium, “Geothermai Power at Wairakei,” Messrs. J. Healy, C. J. Banwell, A. C. Fookes “Sea Foods,” Mr. K. Fraser. Panel, “The Responsibility of a Community to Its Elders,” Mrs. R. A. Gibson, Canon Talbot, Dr. R. S. Edward “Conversazione at N.Z.F.R.I.,” Mr. Strong. “Tree Propagation,” Mr. I. Thulin. “Modern Architecture,” Mr. A. L. Gabites. Papers on Local Research, Miss V. Jolly, Messrs. J. Harris and D. Kirk. “Reminiscences of a Physicist,” Professor W. M. Burbidge.
The conversazione at the Forest Research Institute proved somewhat of an experience to those who attended, the weather and the power cuts being partly responsible. Shortly after the symposium in May a group of members visited Wairakei, so that it is with a distinct feeling of satisfaction we learn that the power station has begun operating. On the whole the addresses were extremely good, and that given by Dr. Pevsner at the special meeting only served to promote interest in the subsequent address on a similar topic.
The membership of the Branch remains at a healthy level financially. We have lost some members through transfers to other districts and others through inability to attend. In their place we have been glad to welcome a number of new members. The attendance, averaging approximately 60 per cent. of our membership, is a little disappointing, and some remedy may yet be found for this. However, the position is not a serious one as there are some who consider their attendance to be secondary to their support of the Royal Society of New Zealand.
The Historical and Museum Sections have continued their activities in 1958. The former in addition to its ordinary meetings presented a large and well attended display of photographs of early Rotorua and its personalities, and unstinted praise goes to those who undertook the work entailed. The Museum Section has advanced the reconstruction of the Treasure House to the stage of commencing alterations early in the New Year. The reports of these Sub-sections appear below.
Historical Section. The following lectures were delivered to the Section during the year: “Pre-Maori Inhabitants of the Rotorua-Taupo District,” by Mr. D. Stafford, “The Introduction of Trout into the Hot Lakes District,” by Mr. P. J. Burstall.
In September the Section organised a display called “Old Rotorua in Pictures,” of photographs of historical interest covering, as far as possible, the period 1860 to 1914, of settlement and development of the Rotorua District and the surrounding areas. Some 1800 people visited the display and very favourable comment was made. The funds of the Section benefited by about £40.
Attempts were made during the year to organise at least one field excursion to some locality of historic interest, but without success. This project is to be revived during the coming summer.
The Section has still in hand a project to signpost and briefy describe some places of especial historical interest—adjacent to Rotorua as a first step.
Museum Section. The Section members continued to meet for most of the year on the second and fourth Mondays of each month at the Museum. A numerical list has been prepared of all the exhibits to be retained and the numbers have been affixed to the specimens in the cases, ready for when the present exhibits are dismantled.
Technical Assistance. Mr. P. W. Verrall has continued as honorary architect, and Mr. A. J. Collins, display artist from the National Publicity Studios, has again been made available for the design of exhibits and the preparation of display models. Mr. G. C. Shaw, of Geological Survey, has also been made available for advice on museum practice and for assistance in the preparation of the geology exhibits.
Planning Work. In view of the excess of last year's estimate of cost over the amount put aside by the Borough Council, authority to proceed was not available until well on in 1958, when the approved Borough estimates were announced. The sum of £1,000 has been put on their estimates for the year 1958–59 for museum work.
After this a visit was paid to Rotorua by Messrs. Collins and Shaw, and the nature of the various proposed exhibits was discussed with the group leaders and members, so that the final design of the show-cases could be completed. This is now in the hands of Mr. Verrall for preparation of plans and specifications for submission to the Borough Council to have the cases made as soon as possible. It was decided that to save some expense a number of the existing cases of suitable design should be retained along the north wall for miscellaneous exhibits.
Mr. Collins has in hand the preparation of a scale model of the Museum to show the proposed layout. This is for submission to the Borough Council and for publicity purposes. In anticipation of the cases being completed before the end of the current financial year ended March 31, the decision was made to recommend to the Borough Council that the Museum be closed down to the public as from February 1, 1959, and that it remain closed until considered ready for re-opening to the public.
There are two items of interest relating to the Royal Society this year. One is that our donation towards the expenses of the New Zealand scientists of the Darwin Expedition to South America amounted to nearly half the total from all Branches. The other is that we have supported the intention to pay five shillings of each full member's subscription to augment the funds required for administration.