Go to National Library of New Zealand Te Puna Mātauranga o Aotearoa
Volume 88, 1960-61

List of Plates

Caption Plate number
Fig. 1.—Comparable adult leaves from forms of the three species. a–b, Acaena novae-zelandiae.
var. pallida (both Lyall Bay–Seatoun; b, an anomalous form). c–h, Acaena anserinifolia (c, Wainui; d, Southern Tararuas; e, Wainui Reservoir; f, Brooklyn; g, South Karori Stream; h, Prince of Wales Park) i-l, Acaena novae-zelandiae (i, South Karori Stream; j, Wainui; k, Prince of Wales Park; l, Eastbourne). Fig. 2—Lyall Bay-Seatoun Garden Plants. Comparable leaves from one probable parent and progeny of hybrid. A. Acaena novae-zelandiae
var. pallida. Remainder from hybrid progeny.
Plate 1
Fig. 3.—Prince of Wales Park. Garden plants. Comparable leaves from probable parents and progeny of hybrid. A, Acaena novae-zelandiae; B, Acaena anserinifolia. Remainder from progeny of hybrid. Fig. 4.—Prince of Wales Park. Glasshouse plants Comparable leaves from probable parents and progeny of hybrid. A, Acaena novae-zelandiae; B, Acaena anserinifolia. Remainder from progeny of hybrid. Plate 2
Fig. 1.—The basin at the head of the Toaroha River. Note the change of slope corresponding to the upper limit of the scrub. The flat at the left is occupied by tussock grassland, and the top of the terrace supports bog. Fig. 2.—The upper limits of scrub on a northern aspect at the Toaroha Saddle (3,840ft) The shrub component is almost solely Dracophyllum uniflorum. Fig. 3.—Mosaic of grass and scrub on morainic area in the top Toaroha basin. The tall shrubs are Dracophyllum longifolium (left) and Dacrydium biforme (centre) Plate 3
Fig. 1—Senecio radiolatus (Chatham Island, CHR 82025), Fig. 2—S. lautus ssp. lautus (Makara Beach, Wellington), Fig. 3—S. sterquilinus (Brothers Island, Cook Strait). Fig. 4—S. glaucophyllus ssp. raoulii (Moemoe, Ruahines). Plate 4
Fig. 5—S. glaucophyllus ssp. glaucophyllus (immature topotype, Mt. Arthur), Fig. 6—S. glaucophyllus ssp. basinudus (holotype, near Lake Ellesmere), Fig. 7—S. glaucophyllus ssp. discoideus (Blue Cliffs Station near, St. Andrews). Scale marked in dm Photographs by the Still Photo Unit, University of Washington. Plate 5
Fig. 8—Senecio lautus ssp. carnosulus A—Punakaiki Beach. CHR 81981. B—Lectotype, Black Head, Dunedin. Scale marked in dm. Photographs by the Still Photo Unit, University of Washington. Plate 6
Figs A-B Echinorhinus cookei Pietschmann, neotype (Dom Mus No. 2744) male, 1,980 mm, New Zealand Fig A, Trunk between pectoral and pelvic fins showing small dermal denticles White areas on trunk are due to damage during capture Fig B, Closeup of denticles from above lateral line on trunk
Photos F. O'Leary, Dominion Museusm
Figs C-D Echinorhinus brucus (Bonnaterre), 1,420 mm long mounted skin in Otago Museum, New Zealand Fig C, Trunk between pectoral and pelvic fins showing large bucklers Note buckler spines projecting from profile of trunk Fig D, Close-up of denticles, mostly below lateral line, showing compound bucklers at left of photogroph
Photos. R. R. Forster, Otago Museum
N. B. The dried skin of Figs. C-D makes the denticles shape and size more obvious than in Figs. A-B, where the specimen is formalin preserved
Plate 7
Fig. 8—Two small rotten boughs pinned together leaving space for hanging snare lines which have been partly tangled owing to the tray not being carefully enough carried from table to the place for photographing (8 p. m.). Fig. 9—The larva descends from its hiding place above to inspect and mend the damage (10 p. m.). Plate 8
Fig. 10—The larva has pulled up a house fly and is sucking out its juices. The snare has been mostly demolished by struggles of prey, and the dragging up. Inset on right, disturbed by a flashlamp, the larva drops the fly and retreats to its hiding place. Note mucus on carcase of fly. Fig. 11—The suspended pupa in a cavity in a bank at Arapuni. The soil around was crumbling sandy gravel. This was the only pupa found during six months search. Plate 9
Fig. 12—The larva in Fig. 10 has now suspended itself after clearing away the sticky vertical lines around it. Clearance 20 mm on each side. Fig. 13—Next day it had pupared. The clear ultimate segment, also seen in the previous figure, is, in this photograph, partly covered by the larval exuvia. On the left inset, is a lateral view of another pupa which shows tapered suspensory cord (C) as depicted in Pl. 10, Fig. 13. Plate 10
Figs. 14–17 — Stages in the emergence of the female imago from the pupa shown on the left of Pl. 10, Fig. 13. Plate 11
Fig. 1.—Sphaerophorus cuneatus (Stirt.) Murray. No. 3980.
Fig. 2.—Sphaerophorus melanocarpus var. australis (Laur.) Murray., No. Mr 7095. An unusually small specimen.
Fig. 3.—Sphaerophorus melanocarpus var. australis f, angustior (Reinke) Murray, No. T 2915.
Fig. 4.—Sphaerophorus melanocarpus var. australis f. delicatus Murray. No. 4295.
Fig. 5.—Sphaerophorus melanocarpus var. australis f, insignis (Laur) Murray, No. Mr. 6870.
Fig. 6.—Sphaerophorus melanocarpus var. australis f, palmatus Murray (Thomson & Simpson) CHR.
Plate 12
Fig. 7.— Sphaerophorus melanocorpus var. australis f. subteres (Zahlbr.) Murray. No. 1170.
Fig. 8.— Sphaerophorus melanocarpus var. australis f. vivi dulus (Col.) Murray. (Thomson & Simpson) CHR.
Plate 13
Fig. 9.— Sphaerophorus melanocarpus var. scrobiculatus (Bob.) Murray, No. So 135.
Fig. 10.— Sphaerophorus melanocarpus var. scropiculatus f, macrophyllus (Zihlbr.) Murray, No. 4051.
Plate 13
Fig. 11.— Sphaerophorus tener Lauir No. T 2251. Caespitose form on soil. corresponding to Sph. curtum Hook. f. & Tayl.
Fig. 12.— Sphaerophorus tener f, globoides Murray. No. 4288.
Plate 13
Fig. No. 2—Head and neck of Notornis (right) compared with that of Porphyrio Plate 14a
Fig. No. 5—Takahe Valley and Lake Orbell Murchison Mountains Note the wide valley floor, untypical of this part of New Zealand. and the extensive alluvial flats covered with Danthonia rigida— about 500ft below the tree-line. Plate 14b
A Takahe emerging from its nest. The vegetation in the foreground has been clipped off by the bird and used in making the nest bowl.
Colour Photo P. Morrison, Wildlife Branch
Plate 15a
1 — Oleana colensot trees killed back by shags on Tamihau Island off Stewart Island Rank shrub layer of Hebe elliptica and ground layer of Tillaea moschata Plate 15b
— Shag colony on edge of Hebe elliptica/H elliptica × salicifolia scrub on Green Island Otago showing branches of dead Hebe and bare guano-saturated soil Plate 15c
2a — Coastal grassland killed back by shaes on Taiaioa Head Otago Plate 16
2b — Coastal Melrosideros lucida trees partially killed by shags nesting in their branches Glory Harbour Stewart Island Plate 16b
1a—Eroding Salicornietum burrowed by dove petrels on western cliffs. Sparse cover of Salicornia australis, Disphyma australe and Rhagodia triandra with displaced Poa caespitosa from above. 1b—Low Coprosma repens scrub on northern cliffs. Almost pure and only a few cm high merging into a mat of Disphyma australe in the foreground. Blue pengums(total length 19½m or 50 cm) give scale. Plate 17
2a—Disphyma australe sward on N. W. cliffs, almost pure with a little Poa caespitosa and a few petrel and pengums burrows. 2b—Salicornia australis 50ft (15 m) above sea level on western cliffs ripped from the soil and rolled back to leeward in a gale of 75–105 m. p. h. Plate 18
Figs. 1, 2.—Manticula problematica (Zittel) × 1 approx. Fig. 1—Anterior view of highly inflated right valve, typical of old shells of M. problematica (M. trechmanni Waterhouse = mirabilis Trechmann non Lepsius). The specimen is crushed, exaggerating the width slightly. The byssal depression is obscured by matrix, and is not as deep as shown in the figure. Internal cast TM 2162, GS 395, Otamitan, between Wairoa Gorge and Eighty-eight Valley, Nelson Fig. 2—Specimen of trechmanni with valves conjoined. Posterior view, showing the inflated right valve and the less inflated left valve. TM 2171, GS 7527, Mt. Heslington, Nelson. S. N. Beatus, photo. Plate 19
Fig. 3.—Manticula problematica × 2 approx. Umbonal region of inflated right valve, showing the plate-like ligament area above an umbonal chamber. The plate is broken behind the beak. Rubber mould of internal cast TM 2159, GS 7526 Mt. Heslington Nelson. R. C. Brazier, del. Plate 20
Fig. 4.—Manticula problematica (Zittel) × 1.5 approx. Left valve, showing a crumpled ligament plate and a thick posterior ridge Rubber mould of internal cast TM 2167,
GS 5156, Otamitan, Gore.
Figs. 5–7.—? Pteria spedeni n sp × 1.5 approx. Figs. 5, 6.—Right and left valves of holotype, TM 2172, GS 7526, Otamitan, Mt. Heslington, Nelson Fig. 7—Damaged right valve, TM
2206, GS 4550, Eighty-eight Valley, Otamitan, Nelson.
Fig. 8.—Mysidioptera riceae n.sp. × 1 5 approx. Large left valve showing part of the ligament area and false lunule. Part of the resilifer is destroyed. Note the faint radiating striae on the inner surface P.V.C. mould of internal cast, TM 2178, GS 140, Otamitan, Nelson. R. C. Brazier, del.
Plate 21
Figs. 9–11.—Mysidioptera globularis (Trechmann) × 2 approx. Fig. 9—Right valve TM 2098 P.V.C. mould of internal cast GS 5156 Otimitan Gore. Fig. 10—Internal cast of right valve of lectotype. Plaster mould from British Museum (Natural History) Oretian beds of Nelson. Fig. 12—Left valve from GS 5156 showing beak, and part of ligament are
and byssal notch P.V.C. mould of external cast TM 2218.
Figs 12–14.—Mysidioptera ricene n sp × 2 approx. Fig. 12—Right valve with false lunule and broken ligament area. Note the thick shell TM 2105, GS 2534, Whareorino SD
Figs. 13, 14—A large specimen approaching M. globularis in inflation but a relatively longer and better defined false lunule and deeper byssal sinus Internal cast TM 2149
GS 140, Otamitan Wairoa Gorge, Nelson. R. C. Brazier, del.
Plate 22
Fig. 15.—Mysidioptera globularis (Trechmann) × 2 approx. Anterior view of lectotype, showing inflated valves, and deep byssal notch in the right valve. Rubber mould from the
external cast. Oretian, Nelson
Figs 16–20.—Mysidioptera riceae n.sp. × 2 approx. Fig. 16—Holotype, a left valve, P.V.C. mould of external cast, TM 2101, GS 1431, Otamitan, Waiwera River. Fig. 17—Cast of a right valve, showing the deep, false lunule and fine concentric ornament. (The cast of the ligament area is omitted from the figure.) Specimen TM 2099, GS 442, Otamitan, Wairoa Gorge, Nelson. Fig. 18—P.V.C. mould of the same specimen, TM 2099, showing the deep false lunule, and the ligament area, with the median pit represented by a triangular gap in the mould. Fig. 19—Left valve with strong concentric wrinkles. Internal cast, TM 2105, GS 2536, Otamitan, Waikawau River. Fig. 20—Topotype. Internal view of left valve, with crumpled ligament area. Note the thickness of the shell P.V.C. mould TM 2100, GS 1431. R. C. Brazier, del.
Plate 23
Figs. 21–25.—Hokonuia limaeformis Treachmann × 1.5 approx. Fig. 21—Posterior view of internal cast with valves conjoined, showing that the left value is more inflated than the right. The cast of the resilifer is visible in the two valves TM 2179 GS 7526. Otamitan, Mt. Heslington, Nelson. Fig. 22—Right valve showing cteniolum anterior ear and ligament area (incomplete posteriorly). The anterior part of the ligament area has faint ridges. Rubber mould, TM 2181, GS 4550 Eighty-eight Valley Nelson. Fig. 23—Internal view of part of left valve, tilted to show the anterior notch and buttiess under the beak. Rubber mould, TM 2187, GS 434. Fig. 24—Internal view of left valve showing the ligament area (broken posteriorly), buttress and notch in front TM 2184 GS 395, Otamitan beds between Wairoa Gorge and Eighty-eight Valley Nelson. Fig. 25—Right valve showing the byssal notch, anterior ear and ligament area (broken posterorly) TM 2182 Boulder Eighty-eight Valley Nelson. R. C. Brazier, del. Plate 24
Figs. 26–29.—Manticula problematica (Zittel) Thin sections of right valve Figs. 26, 30—Concentric sections, showing the complex zone of fibrous and crystalline calcite, grading down inwards into more homogeneous calcite. At the base is an inner layer of lamellar calcite. The outermost thin zone of calcite is not preserved GS 2534 Ordinary light, × 12 Figs.
27–29—Concentric sections, under crossed nicols, × 19 approx.
Fig. 31—Hokonuia limaeformis Trechmann. Radial section of the middle layer. Ordinary light, × 12. S. N. Beatus, photo.
Plate 25
Fig. A —Etmopterus baxteri, juvenile female 261 mm from New Zealand
Fig. B —E. princeps, juvenile male 262 mm (Mus Comp Zool No. 37457) from western North Atlantic.
Fig. C —E baxteri, adult male 655 mm from New Zealand.
Fig. D —E lucifer, showing pelvic flank mark
Photos M. D. King, Victoria University of Wellington.
Plate 26
Fig. A —Etmopterus baxteri, juvenile female 261 mm from New Zealand.
Fig. B —E. princeps, juvenile male 262 mm (Mus Comp Zool No. 37457) from western North Atlantic.
Fig C —E baxteri, adult male 655 mm from New Zealand
Fig D —E lucifer, showing pelvic flank mark
Photos M. D. King, Victoria University of Wellington
Plate 26b
General View of Glow-worm Grotto in Waitomo Cave.
Photo by courtesy of National Publicity Studios.
Plate 27
Fig. 1—Eggs of A. luminosa Natural size 0.75 mm in diameter.
Photo: J. W. Endt.
Fig. 2—Larva of A. luminosa emerging from the egg.
Photo: S. A. Rumsey.
Fig. 3—First instar larva of A. luminosa suspended from the ceiling in Waipu Cave.
Photo: S. A. Rumsey.
Plate 28
fig. 1.—Larva of bush glow-worm near Aranui Cave, Waitomo.
Photo: S. A. Rumsey.
fig. 2.—Larva of cave glow-worm on wall of Grotto in Waitomo Cave.
Photo: J. Pybus.
Plate 29
fig. 1.—Larva of A. luminosa suspended vertically from the ceiling in the Swanson Tunnel, Auckland, just prior to pupat.ion.
Photo: S. A. Rumsey.
fig. 2.—Female pupa of A. luminosa showing attachment of suspensory cord to the dorsal surface of the thorax.
Photo: S. A. Rumsey.
fig. 3.—Male pupa of A. luminosa. Photo: S. A. Rumsey.
Plate 30
fig. 1.—Larva of A. luminosa removed from its nest.
Photo: S. A. Rumsey.
fig. 2.—Ventral aspect of female pupa of A. luminosa.
Photo: S. A. Rumsey.
Plate 31
fig. 1.—Pupa of A. luminosa suspended from ceiling in Waitomo Cave. All larval fishing-lines have been removed.
Photo: J. Pybus.
fig. 2.—Pupa of A. luminosa hanging amongst a dense mass of larval fishing-lines in Waitomo Cave.
Photo: J. Pybus.
Plate 32
fig. 1.—Male fly of A. luminosa emerging from a pupa on the ceiling of Waitomo Cave.
Photo: S. A. Rumsey.
fig. 2.—Male and female flies of A. luminosa in copula. Both flies are clinging to the empty female pupal case in the centre. The female fly is on the left and the male fly on the right. The eggs are visible through the body wall of the female.
Photo: S. A. Rumsey.
Plate 33
fig. 1.—Male fly of A. luminosa on ceiling in Grotto of Waitomo Cave. The tip of the abdomen is characteristically raised above the rest of the body, and the wings are folded over the thorax and anterior part of the abdomen.
Photo: S. A. Rumsey.
fig. 2.—Two male flies of A. luminosa attempting to copulate with a female fly which has just emerged from a pupa. They are suspended from the ceiling in the Grotto of Waitomo Cave.
Photo: S. A. Rumsey.
fig. 3.—View of same three flies from opposite side, showing male and female in copula, while other male fly attempts to separate them.
Photo: S. A. Rumsey.
fig. 4.—Female fly of A. luminosa ovipositing on the ceiling in the Grotto of Waitomo Cave.
Photo: S. A. Rumsey.
Plate 34
fig. 1.—Female A. luminosa bush fly on left and cave fly on right. Both are photographed to the same scale.
Photo: S. A. Rumsey.
Plate 35
fig. 1.—Dorsal view of male fly of A. luminosa Photo: S. A. Rumsey.
fig. 2.—Dorsal view of female fly of A. luminosa. The light organ is glowing in the anal segment.
Photo: S. A. Rumsey.
Plate 36a
fig. 1.—Larva of A. luminosa on wall of old Railway Tunnel, Parnell, Auckland, showing long braces for attachment of nest to the tunnel wall. The larva is inside the right half of the nest. Scale X 2.25.
Photo: S. A. Rumsey
fig. 2.—Larvae of A. luminosa in Demonstration Chamber, Waitomo Cave, showing very long fishing-lines.
Photo by courtesy of National Publicity Studios.
Plate 37
fig. 1.—Larvae of A. luminosa removed from the Grotto, Waitomo Cave, after having been attacked by the fungus Beauveria sp.
Photo: J. W. Endt.
fig. 2.—Pupa of A. luminosa which has been attacked by fungi, hanging from the ceiling in Waitomo Cave.
Photo by courtesy of National Publicity Studios.
Plate 38
Fig. 1—Tasmanian larva (about 23½ mm in length), from dorsal surface. Fig. 2.—Front end of N.Z. larva showing imaginal discs of legs, wings and halteres. Fig. 3.—Free hand sketch of N.S.W. larva, to show zones of colouration. Fig. 4.—Head of N.Z. larva, slightly from one side to show eyes and antenna base. Fig. 4A.-Part of section of head of larva showing the two types of eyes. Plate 39
Fig. 5.—Part of snare of N.S.W. larva scraped from rock and fixed in 70% ethanol. Fig. 6.—Larval light organ and reflector in transverse section. Fig. 7.—Plan of externals of N.Z. larva, showing imaginal discs, testes, and hooked areas. Fig. 8.—Last three abdominal segments of Tasmanian larva from the side. Fig. 8A.-Position of short straight (Y) and long curved (X) chordotonal sensory setae (see Pl. 42, Fig. 16). Fig. 9.—Plan of hooked areas or pads of N.Z. larva. Fig. 10.—Transverse section of newly metamorphosed pupa showing hollow reflector and male ducts forming. Fig. 10A.-Row of hooks of two individuals from same N.Z. locality to show variation in size and pigmentation. Plate 40
fig. 11.—The Tasmanian male. Fig. 11A.-First five segments of the antenna for comparison with those of the N.Z. male in Fig. 12A. Fig. 11B.-Coxa and femur of N.Z. male, hind leg Fig. 12-N.Z. female. Small specimen Fig. 12A.-Part of the antenna of N.Z. male.
Figs. 12B and 12C.-External genital segment of N.Z. female. (12B from ventral surface.)
Fig. 12D.-The contour and lengths of the Tasmanian and N.Z. adults antennae. fig. 13.—Halteres of the N.Z. and Tasmanian (A) forms.
Plate 41
fig. 14.—Course of nerve fibre (AN) towards the light origin (LO). Male Fig.-15.-Ditto in female. Note.-These photographs taken under phase-contrast, appear to show a background of congulum at (R) where the space is however, really quite empty under ordinary microscopic observation.
fig. 16.—The curved external sensory seta (S) of the chordotonal organs. The base is seen where the seta emerges from the cuticle. The muscle of the palp and one of the overlying chordotonal organs can be seen sweeping across from upper right to lower left. fig. 17.—Photomicrograph of the hooks on the eight segment. These point forwards.
Plate 42a
Fig. 1. —c-axis rotation photographs of hyacinth from Snowy River. south-western Nelson. New Zealand. Nickel-filtered copper radiation and camera diameter = 57.29 mm.
A (upper). Hyacinth before heat-treatment. X-ray film No. 1038.
B (lower). Hyacinth after having been heated in air for 30 minutes at 860° C., with a superimposed powder pattern due to recrystallized samarskite inclusion. This powder photograph may be compared to that illustrated in Fig. 2C. X-ray film No. 1130.
Plate 43
Fig. 2.—X-ray diffraction powder patterns of samarskite. Nickel-filtered copper radiation (CuKa = 1.5418 Å). Camera diameter = 114.59 mm. Cut-off = 18.5 Å ca.
A. Heated in air to 600° C. for 30 minutes. Exposure time = 5.3 hours, aperture No. 3. Film No. 1154. Spruce Pine. Mitchell Co., North Carolina.
B. Heated in air to 860° C. for 30 minutes. Exposure time = 5.6 hours, aperture No. 1 Film No. 1150. Spruce Pine, Mitchell Co., North Carolina.
C. Inclusion material from hyacinth. Heated in zircon in an to 860° C. for 30 minutes. Exposure time = 4.9 hours, aperture No. 3. Film No. 1131. A Snowy River. Mawheraiti S.D., south-western Nelson, New Zealand.
D. Heated in air to 1000° C. for 30 minutes. Exposure time = 5.3 hours, aperture No. 4. Film No. 1155. Spruce Pine, Mitchell Co., North Carolina.
E. Inclusion material removed from hyacinth and heated in air to 1000° C. for 30 minutes. Exposure time = 6.0 hours, aperture No. 4. Film No. 1134. Snowy River, Mawheraiti S.D., south-western Nelson, New Zealand.
Plate 44
Fig. 1.— Holotype, right valve (TM 2753). Figs. 2, 3.—Topotype (GS 6374),  right and left valves (TM 2754).  All natural size. Plate 45
Figs. 4, 5.—Sectipecten grangei n.sp. Holotype, right valve (TM 2755); paratype, left value (TM 2756). Fig. 6.—Sectipecten cf. allam Maiwick. Right value, Kaawa Creek. Fig. 7.—Sectipecten cf. grangei n.sp. Right value, Cape Kidnappers (TM 2760). All natural size. Plate 46
Fig. 8.—Right value (TM 2757). Fig. 9.—Left value (TM 2759). Fig. 10.—Right value (TM 2758). All reduced to five-sixths natural size. Plate 47
Fig. 11.—Left value. Fig. 12.—Right value. Both natural size. Plate 48
Fig. 13.—Right value. Fig. 14.—Left value. Both natural size. Plate 49
Fig. 1.—Fragilaria capucina. Fig. 2.—F. crotonesis. Fig. 3.—F. harrisonii. Fig. 4.—F. pinnata. Fig. 5.—F. virescens. Fig. 6a, b.—Tabellaria flocculosa. Fig. 7.—Rhaphoneis amphiceros. Fig. 8.—R. amphiceros var. crucifera. Fig. 9.—R. cocconeriformis. Fig. 10.—R. surirella. Fig. 11.—Cymatosira lorenziana. Fig. 12a, b.—Trachysphenia australis. Fig. 13.—Omphalopsis australis. Fig. 14.—Entopyla australis. Fig. 15.—Asterionella bleakleyi. Fig. 16.—A. formosa. Fig. 17.—A. notata. Fig. 18.—Plagiogramma atomus. Fig. 19.—P. constrictum. Fig. 20.—P. interruptum. Fig. 21.—P. labuense. Fig. 22.—P. rutilarioides Fig. 23.—P. schmidtii Fig. 24.—P. wallichianum. Fig. 25.—Synedra acus. Fig. 26a, b.—S. hennedyana. Fig. 27.—S. goulardii. Fig. 28.—S. tabulata. Fig. 29.—Grammatophora angulosa. Fig. 30.—Terpsinoe americana. Fig. 31a, b.—Licmophora araphidiea. Fig. 32.—L. luxuriosa. Fig. 33.—Eunotia cancellata f. mutabilis. Fig. 34.—E. hebridica. Fig. 35.—E. indica. Fig. 36.—E. serpentina. Fig. 38.—E. thumii. Plate 50
Fig. 39.—Achnanthes coarctata. Fig. 40a.—A. dispar. Fig. 40b.—A dispar angulata. Fig. 41.— A. delicatula. Fig. 42.—A. exilis. Fig. 43.—A. hungarica. Fig. 44a, b, c.—A. unflata. Fig. 45.— A. lanceolata. Fig.Fig. 46.—A. laterostriata.Fig. 47a, b.—A. pulchella.Fig. 48.—A. taeniata.Fig. 49.—A. sp.. Fig.50.—Campyloneis grevillei. Fig. 51.—Cocconcis apiculata Fig. 52.—C. debesi. Fig. 53.–C. distans. Fig. 54.—. Fig 55. C. pellucidaFig. 56.—C. placintula. Fig. 57.—C. placentula var. euglypta. Fig. 58.—C. scutellum var. stauroneiformis Fig. 59.—Rhoicosphenia curvata. Fig. 60.— Navicula aberrans. Fig. 61.—N. aucklandica. Fig. 62.—N. amphibola. Fig. 63.—N. biformis. Fig. 64.—N. brasilicusis var. bicucuneata. Fig. 65a.—N. hennedyi. Fig. 66.—N. spectabilis. Fig. 67.—N. lacustris. Fig. 68.—N. libellus. Plate 51
Fig. 65b.— Navicula hennedyi. Fig. 69.—N. luxuriosa. Fig. 70.—N. australica. Fig. 71.—N. marina. Fig. 72.—N. weissflogii Fig. 73.—N. semen. Fig. 74.—N. sulcifera Fig. 75.—N. torneensis. Fig. 76.—N. virihensis Fig. 77.—N. vulpina Fig. 78.—N. digitoradiata. Fig. 79.—N. lyra. var. Fig. 80.—Diploneis advena. Fig. 81.—D. campylodiscus. Fig. 82.—D. finnica. Fig. 83.—D. gemmata. var. pristrophora. Fig. 84.—D. interrupta. Fig. 85.—D. notabilis. Fig. 86.—D. bombus var. bomiformis. Fig. 87.—D. beyrichiana. Fig. 88.—D. rostrata. Fig. 89.—D. suborbicularis. Fig. 90.—Dictyoneis marginata. Fig. 91.—Frustulia rhomboides. var. saxonica f. undulata. Fig. 92.—Pinnularia acrosphaeria Fig. 94.—P. legumen. Fig. 96.—P. notata. Fig. 97.—P. viridis. Plate 52
Fig. 93.—Pinnularia cardinalis. Fig. 95.—P. nobilis. Fig. 98.—P. viridis var. rupestris. Fig. 99.—Trachyneis aspera var. pulchella. Fig. 100.—Pleurosigma directum. Fig. 101.—P. obscurum. Fig. 102.—P. speciosum Fig. 103.—Stauroneis acuta. Fig.—104. S. acuta var. inflata. Fig. 105.—S. fulmen var. capitata. Fig. 106.—S. phoenicenteron Fig. 107.—Anomoeoneis serians var. brachysira f. genuina. Fig. 108.—F. thermalis. Fig. 109.—Mastogloia affirmata. Fig. 110.—M. angulata. Fig. 111.—M. apiculata. Fig. 112.—M. baldjikiana. Fig. 113.—M. binotata. Fig. 114.—M. braunii. Fig. 115.—M. brunii. Fig. 116.—M. decussata. Fig. 117.—M. euxina. Fig. 118.—M. fallax. Fig. 119.—M. fimbriata Fig. 120.—M. ignorata Fig. 121.—M. lata. Fig. 122.—M. lineata. Fig. 123.—M. mediterrance. Fig. 125.—M. pulchella Fig. 126.—M. pumila. Fig. 128.—M. vasta. Plate 53
Fig. 124.—Mastogloia pseudoparadoxa. Fig. 127.—M. rostrata. Fig. 129.—Amphora angularis. Fig. 130.—A. acuta. Fig. 131.—A. arenaria. Fig. 132.—A. bigibba. Fig. 133.—A. coffaciformis. Fig. 134.—A. cuneata. Fig. 135.—A. egregia. Fig. 136.—A. fasciata. Fig. 137.—A. graeffii. Fig. 138.—A. javanica. Fig. 139.—A. laevis. Fig. 140.—A. libyca. Fig. 141.—A. macilenta. Fig. Fig. 142.—A. obtusa. Fig. 143.—A. ovalis. Fig. 144.—A. terroris. Fig. 145.—A. weissflogii. Fig. 146.—A. ostretria Fig. 147.—A. turgida. Fig. 148.—A. sp. Fig. 149.—Epithemia gibberula. Fig. 150.—E. turgida. Fig. 151.—E. sorex (pair). Fig. 152.—Rhopalodia musculus. Fig. 153.—R. musculus var. constricta Fig. 154.—Cymbella cestii. Fig. 155.—C. cistula var. maculata. Fig. 156.—C. ehrenbergii. Fig. 157.—C. heteropleura. Fig. 158.—C. lanceolata. Fig. 159.—C. parva var. hungarica. Fig. 160.—Gomphonema berggrenii. Fig. 161a, b—C. constrictum var. capitata Fig. 162.—G. gracile. Fig. 163.—C. acuminatum f. coronata. Fig. 164.—C. parvuulum Fig. 165.—Gomphoneis mamilla. Fig. 166.—Caloneis amphisbaena var. subsalina. Plate 54
Fig. 167.—Caloneis excentrica. Fig. 168.—C. liber. Fig. 169.—C. powellii. Fig. 170.—Amphiprora striolata. Fig. 171.—Nitzschia australis. Fig. 172.—N. bremenensis. Fig. 173.—N. brightwellii. Fig. 174.—N. compressa Fig. 175.—N. distans var. tumescens Fig. 176.—N. gracilis 177.—N. graeffii.Fig.. 178.—N. granulata.Fig.. 179.—N. lorenziana.Fig. 180.—N. panduriformis. Fig. 181.—N. polaris. robusta. Plate 55
Fig. 197.—Surirella striatula. Fig. 198.—S S. tenera var. splendidula. Fig. 199.—Stenopterobia intermedia Fig. 200.—Podocystis Fig. 201.—Compylodiscus aequatorialis.Fig 202a, b—C. echeneis.Fig. 203.—C. sp. Plate 56
Fig. 1.—Melossia roesena. Fig. 2.—Hyalodiscus (Podosira) maximus. Fig. 3.—Actinoptychus vulgaris. Fig. 4.—Actinoptychus sp. Fig. 5.—Actinocyclus barklyi. Fig. 6.—Actinocyctus monniliformis Fig. 7.—Aulacodiscus var. johnsonii. Fig. 8.—Aulacodiscus broadly. Fig. 9.—Biddulphia reticulata var. rawsonii. Fig. 10.— [ unclear: ] Triceratum sp. Fig. 11.—Plagiogramma robertstanum. Fig. 12.—Entopyla ocellata var. pulchella. Fig. 13.— Dimerogramma minus. Fig. 14.—Rhaphoneis belgica. Fig. 15.—Synedra vaucheriae. Fig. 16, a, b —Rhabdonema minutum. Fig. 17 a, b, c —Cocconeis saintpaulu. Fig. 18.—Cocconeis scutellum var. Fig. 19.— Navicula latissima. Fig. 20.—Navicula circumsecta. Fig. 21.—Navicula hennedyi var. manca. Fig. 22.—Navicula Fig. 26.—Navicula pusilla var. subcapitata. Plate 57
Fig. 23.—Navicula scopulorum. Fig. 24.—Navicula elegans. Fig. 25.—Navicula pinnata. Fig. 28.—Navicula humerosa. Fig. 29.—Navicula sulcifera. Fig. 30.—Pleurosigma parkeri. Fig. 31.—Pleurosigma rigidum. Fig. 32.—Pleurosigma hippocampus. Fig. 33.—Pleurosigma angulatum var. quadratum. Fig. 34.—Caloneis formosa. Fig. 35.—Caloneis silicula var. inflata. Fig. 36.—Pinnularia cardinaliculus. Fig. 37.—Pinnularia trevelyana. Fig. 38.—Pinnularia nodosa. Fig. 39.—Frustulia weinholdtii. Fig. 40.—Frustulia rhomboides var. amphipleuroides. Fig. 41a, b —Amphiprora alata var. pulchra. Fig. 42.—Epithemia gibberula var. producta. Fig. 43a, b —Epithemia zebra var. proboscidea. Fig. 44.—Epithemia muelleri. Fig. 45.—Cymbella yarrensis. Fig. 46.—Gomphoneis herculaneum. Fig. 47.—Nitzschia acuminata. Fig. 48.—Nitzschia circumsuta. Fig. 49.— Fig. Nitzschia granulata. Fig. Nitzschia. Fig. 50.—Nitzschia tryblionella var. yarrensis. Fig. 54.—surirella filholu. Fig. 55.—surirella contorta. Plate 58
Fig. 56.—surirella biseriala. Fig. 57. —surirella recedens. Fig. 58. —Campylodiscus incertus. Fig. 59. —Campylodiscus impressus. Fig. 60. —Campylodiscus ralfsii. Fig. 61. —Campylodiscus taentatus. Fig. 62. —surirella conlorta. Plate 59
Fig. 1.—Cross section of log of Pinus radiata showing gallerics of Prionoplus reticularis larvae.
Fig. 2.—First instar larva hatching. Head and thorax are visible through the completed subterminal exit hole. Fig. 3.— Female pupa within pupal chamber.
Plate 60
Fig. 1. —Distribution of catch in successive ten-minute periods during night of 18–19. xii. 54. mr: moonrise, w: wind burst. Plate 61a
Fig. 2. —Combat between two male Prionoplus.
FIG. 3. —Female locating oviposition site.
Plate 61b