Studies of New Zealand Lichens. II—The Teloschistaceae
[Received by Editor, September 14, 1959].
Keys, descriptions and distributional data are given for the fifteen New Zealand species and varieties in the family, and for a related Caloplaca species. Three new taxa are described and two new combinations made.
The family Teloschistaceae comprises foliose and fruticose lichens with colourless polarilocular or uniseptate spores and containing physcion, a yellow anthraquinone pigment dissolving in alkalis to give crimson solutions. The family includes three genera, Xanthopeltis with an umbilicate thallus, Xanthoria with foliose thalli and Teloschistes with fruticose thalli, excluding Lethariopsis Hue which is apparently based on a Caloplaca species growing on another lichen. Xanthopeltis is a monotypic Chilean genus, but several of the fairly small number of species in the other two genera are widely distributed in temperate climates. One or two species seem to be intermediate in habit between Xanthoria and Teloschistes, and the most reliable distinction between these genera (at least for the New Zealand species) is the presence of a plectenchymatous cortex in Xanthoria, but a fibrous upper cortex of more or less longitudinally arranged hyphae in Teloschistes. The species of the latter genus also commonly have concolorous cilia along the thallus margins; while fibrils present in some Xanthoriae are mostly rhizines and not strictly marginal.
Forms of Xanthoriae parientina with narrow stellately arranged lobes approach Caloplaca, sect. (or subgenus) Gasparrinia, and may be difficult to distinguish from Caloplaca elegans in particular. Xanthoria is said to differ from this section of Caloplaca in having rhizines on the lower surface and pycnidia sunken in darker coloured warts near the thallus margin rather than immersed in the thallus, but these distinction can hardly be maintained in practice. The arrangement of the pycnidia in X. parietina varies somewhat in different varieties, and are sometimes hardly prominent or coloured (see also discussion in Dodge & Baker, 1938, p. 626). Caloplaca elegans might well be transferred to Xanthoria, and I have included it in the Key;, other Caloplaca species will be discussed in a later paper. It is evident that some reports of C. elegans in New Zealand actually refer to X. parietina var. ectanea and f. rutilans.
The following symbols are used for herbaria:—CHR, Botany Division, Dept. of Scientific and Industrial Research, Christchurch; Mr., Mr. W. Martin, Dunedin; Sc., Mr. D. Scott, Botany Dept; University of Otago; T, J. S. Thomson collection, Botany Dept, University of Otago. Others are named in full, and my own specimens carry a number only.
Unless otherwise stated, descriptions of species are based on the specimens cited. Literature references (and synonyms) for each species are confined to the nomenclatural references and those dealing with New Zealand material.
Genus Xanthoria Th. Fr.
Thallus medium to small foliose, appressed or ascending, dorsiventral, both surfaces with plectenchymatous cortex, orange or yellow or greenish turning crimson with KOH, usually sparingly rhizinose; apothecia medium, lecanorine, sessile to subpedicullate with yellow or orange discs, asci 8-spored, spores hyaline, polarilocular (in New Zealand); pycnidia usually immersed in more or less prominent warts.
There are about a dozen species, including several of wide distribution.
|1||Lobes flat, more or less plane, rarely under 1 mm wide||2|
|Lobes convex, more or less ellipsoid in cross-section, up to 1 mm wide||3|
|2||Thallus to 10 mm dia, lobes thin, about 0.5–1.0 mm wide, with some horizontal submarginal white rhizines||novozelandica|
|Thallus 10–50 mm dia., lobes usually wider, thicker, without horizontal rhizine||parietina|
|3.||Orange-red, with concolorous apothecia, alpine||Caloplaca elegans|
|Yellow, orange-yellow or greenish-yellow with darker apothecia, apothecia sessile or on erect lobes||Caloplaca spp.|
|Xanthoria parietina Varieties and Forms|
|1.||Thallus lobes rather thick, with warty protruberances, on rock var.||aureola|
|Thallus wrinkled or smooth||2|
|2.||Lobes mostly 2–5 mm wide, about as long as wide||3|
|Lobes mostly 1–2 mm wide||5|
|3.||Lobes smooth or longitudinally wrinkled, with raised flexuous margins; apothecia darker than thallus, usually remaining concave||var. parietina||4|
|Lobes smooth or transversely wrinkled, matt or rather arachnoid, closely appressed; apothecia concolorous, plane or convex with obscure margin var.||incavata|
|4.||Thallus small, greenish, thin, discs yellow||f. urescens|
|Thallus greenish-grey, wrinkled with yellow margins||f. chlorina|
|Thallus white, flat, apothecia small||f. albicans|
|Thallus yellow, more or less wrinkled and flexuous||normal form|
|5.||Thallus submonophyllous with short contiguous appressed lobes||var. adpressa|
|Thallus more or less stellate lobed, lobes imbricate or discrete||var. ectanea|
Xanthoria novozelandica Hillm.
Xanthoria novozelandica Hillmann. f edde, Repert. spec. nov. 45, 176 (1938).
Zahlbr., Lich. N. Z., 123 (1941).
Thallus orbicular, appressed, 5–30 (-50) mm dia., yellow or greenish-yellow or greygreen, K- or pink in places, with smooth marginally imbricate lobes 1–3 mm long, 0.5–1.2 (-2) mm wide, 50–90μ thick and minutely crenulate, white beneath, shortly rhizinose, with submarginal horizontal white fibrils projecting about 0.2 mm beyond margins (occasionally very few or none)., upper cortex 12–25μ thick, plectenchymatous with isodiametric 4–6μ dia. cells, algal layer 25–50μ thick, filling all the space between the cortices, algae Trebouxia 8–14μ dia., lower cortex 15–30μ thick, similar to upper cortex. Apothecia covering most of the plant in larger specimens, 1–1.8 (-3) mm dia., shortly pedicellate on pedicels 0.2 mm high, excipulum plane, with a few white fibrils 0.2–0.3 mm long projecting downwards; disc plane or slightly convex with thin entire and finally obsolete margin; hypothecium hyaline, obscurely cellular, 25–30μ thick; hymenium (65-) 75–80μ high including granular epithecium. paraphyses 1½μ thick, simple or furcate, asci clavate-cylindrical, 45–50 × 13–15μ, spores rather variously shaped, polaribilocular, (11-) 13 × 6½-7½μ, r = 0.2–0.4* Pycnidia globose, 200μ dia, singly in prominent orange warts on upper surface, pycnidiospores cylindrical, not constricted, 3 × 0.8μ.
Habitat. On bark, or rarely twigs.
Distribution. New Zealand Canterbury: Hurunui (A. J. Healy, 58/499) CHR (uncertain), Waitohi R (A. J. Healy 58/520) CHR;, Cheviot (A. J. Healy) CHR;, Godley Valley (H. H. Allan, H64) CHR (Isotype), Sc 170. Otago: Lake Ohau (R. Jones) 1721, Matukituki R. (R. F. Smith) 1192;, Stewart's Gully, T 1993 (and in CHR as X. parietina f. virescens), Dunedin 1226; Flagstaff, 1,200ft, 3633; Brighton, 021b (uncertain) Southland Kaiwera, Mr; 717, Gore, Mr. 899.
The species seems to be rare, although it is evidently quite widely distributed. The material is not very uniform and further collecting may confirm the existence of subspecific taxa. A few specimens from the coastal regions have scarcely any fibrils or even none, and then only differ from small forms of X. parietina in the
[Footnote] * r is the ratio: length of canal length of spore.
thinner, narrower crenulate marginal lobes with prominent pycnidia. One specimen, A. J. Healy 58/499, has many large apothecia as well as lacking fibrils, and looks very like Xanthoria polycarpa except that the lobes are uniformly flat.
Xanthoria parietina (I) Th. Fr. var. parietina.
Lichen parietinas L., Spec. pl. 1143 (1773).
Xanthoria parietina Th. Fr., Lich. Arctoi, 67 (1860).
Müll. Arg., Bull. Herb. Boissier II, 40 (1894).
Hellb., Bihang Kgl. Svensk Vetensk. Akad. Handl., 21, (13), 51 (1896).
Cock., Trans. N. Z. Inst., 42, 320 (1909).
Cranw. & Moore, Rec. Auck. Mus., 1, 314 (1935).
Zahlbr., Lich. N. Z., 122 (1941).
Physcia parietina D. Notr.
Nyl., Synops. Lich., I, 410 (1860).
J. Linn. Soc. Bot., 9, 249 (1865).
Lich. N. Z., 45 (1888).
Linds., Trans. Linn. Soc., 25, 518 (1866).
Hook., Handb. N. Z. Fl., 573 (1867).
Physcia parietina var. platyphylla Krmph., Reise d. Novara, Bot. I, 116 (1870).
Physcia ligulata Krb., Reliq. Hochstett., 30 (186?) (sec. Nyl., Lich. N. Z., 45 (1888).
Parmelia parietina Ach.
Hook., Fl. N. Z., 287 (1855).
Kirk, Trans. N. Z. Inst., 4, 235 (1871).
Buch., Trans. N. Z. Inst., 6, 231 (1873).
Thallus 2–5 (-10) cm dia., yellow or orange-yellow or greenish yellow, more or less orbicular, lobed at circumference, lobes 3–6 mm long × 2–5 mm wide, smooth to irregularly wrinkled or weakly folded or pitted with raised, often sinuate margins, white beneath or yellowish peripherally, with a few short simple white rhizines; upper cortex 10–25μ thick, plectenchymatous of vertical hyphae forming cells about 5μ dia., algal layer 30–40μ thick, algae Trebouxia, 8–15μ dia;. medulla 10–80μ thick of moderately thick-walled 3μ dia. hyphae varying from fairly compact to loosely woven. lower cortex similar to upper cortex, 8–15μ thick. Apothecia sessile, well constricted at base, 1–5 mm dia., margin thin, persistent, often inrolled; disc concave, usually darker than thallus, smooth; hypothecium and excipulum hyaline, 20μ thick; hymenium hyaline except for the orange granular epithecium, 75–90μ high;, asci 45–55 × 15μ, spores hyaline, polaribilocular, ellipsoid, 11–14 (-16) × 6½-9μ, r = 0.4–0.6 Pycnidia immersed in orange warts, globose, pycnidiospores 2–3 × 1–1 2μ.
Habitat. On trees, rarely on rock or other substrates.
Distribution. Apparently cosmopolitan in temperate regions. North Island:
Thames, CHR; Kaitake (O. J. Oates) 021c; Feilding (H. H. Allan) CHR, (A. J. Healy 468) CHR; Bulls (B. J. Sweetman) 4413; Netherby (R. Mason and N. T. Moar) CHR; Hawke's Bay (Colenso, 6219) WELT. Canterbury: Port Hills, CHR; Temuka, Mason, 251 and 252. Otago: Saddle Hill, Mr., 485, Mr., 7349; Mosgiel, 058; Lee Stream, T 207; Hindon, T 247; Kaiwera, Mr., 1318; Pukerau, Mr., 490 (pr. p.), Mr., 5418. Southland: Forest Hill, 021e, 049.
The typical variety of the species may be introduced, since I have rarely seen it far from settlements, and it seems to favour exotic trees, usually fruit-trees. It seems to be common in parts of the North Island, although I have seen only a few North Island specimens in herbaria. Like many other wide-ranging species, X. parietina is a variable plant and more than 30 distinct varieties and forms have been described, mostly on European material. I have not been able to see all of these as descriptions or specimens, and furthermore some of the named specimens have not agreed with the descriptions; consequently the identification of the New Zealand specimens with European subspecific taxa is sometimes open to doubt. In certain cases the local material is close to but not clearly identical with the European forms although the differences are not easily expressed in quantitative, terms Although the genus has been surveyed twice by Hillman (1922, 1935) the
separation and nomenclature of these subspecific taxa still show unsatisfactory features, and for this reason I have included several distinct forms under var. ectanea without attempting to name them.
Xanthoria parietina (L) Th. Fr. var. parietina f. albicans (Müll.) Hillm.
Teloschistes parietinus f. albicans Müll. Arg., Flora 338 (1890).
Xanthoria parietina f. albicans Hillm., Ann. Mycol., 14 (1920).
Zahlbr, Lich. N. Z., 122 (1941).
As for the typical form but thallus fairly thin, flat, whitish, K-;. apothecial disc yellow.
Distribution. South America, South Africa, New Zealand and probably elsewhere. North Island: Kaipara (L. B. Moore, ZA125) CHR. Southland: Forest Hill, 046.
This form does not seem significantly different from f. cinerascens (Light) Sandst., and the two plants seen are hardly distinct from the normal form of the species or from f. chlorina.
Xanthoria parietina var. parietina f. chlorina (Chev.) Oliv.
Imbricaria chlorina Chev., Fl. Envir. Par. I, 62 (1826).
Xanthoria parietina f. chlorina Oliv., Mem Soc. nat. Sciences natur. Cherbourg, 36, 228 (1906–7).
Thallus thickish, grey-green centrally with pale yellow raised sinuate margins; apothecia concave with grey margins and yellow discs.
Habitat. On shaded tree-trunks, etc.
Distribution. Europe, and presumably elsewhere. North Island: Hawke's Bay.
(Colenso, 6219 pr. p.) WELT. Otago Mosgiel 021.
Xanthoria parietina var. parietina f. virescens (Wedd.) Sandst.
Physcia parietina f. virescens Wedd., Bull. Soc. bot. Fr., 16, 198 (1869).
Xanthoria parietina f. virescens Sandst., Abh. Naturw. Vereins Bremen, 223 (1911–2).
Thallus rather small and thin, green with yellow apothecial discs; otherwise as in the typical form. A shade form.
Distribution. Europe, but probably cosmopolitan Canterbury. Temuka, Mason, 265.
Xanthoria parietina (L) Th. Fr. var. adpressa Mereshk.
Xanthoria parietina var. adpressa Mereshk., Hedwig. 61, 209 (1919).
Lobes shorter, thinner and narrower (1–2 mm) than in the typical form of var. parietina, smooth, adpressed, margins not sinuate; medulla very thin; apothecia (½-) 1–3 (-4) mm dia., sessile, nearly plane, becoming convex with excluded margin; hypothecium 25μ, hymenium 52–60μ, spores 11–15 × 5–7μ.
Habitat. On trees, often in exposed situations.
Distribution. Asia, Europe. Canterbury: Leithfield (A. J. Healy, 58/530) CHR (pr. p.); Hurunui (A. J. Healy, 58/505) CHR; Lake Tekapo, 1,500–2,000ft, Mason, 8, 245, 246 and 247. Otago. The Kaik, Mr., 603, Saddle Hill, Mr., 488, Mr., 7349. Chatham Islands: (Colenso 9) WELT.
Some of the above specimens are not well separarted from var. parietina and may not truly belong to var. adpressa, of which I have seen no authentic specimens. They seem to differ significantly from var. parietina in the narrower spores as well as in thallus features.
Xanthoria parietina (L) Th. Fr. var. aureola Rostr.
Parmelia aureola Ach, Lich univ, 487 (1910).
Xanthoria parietina var. aureola Rostr; Bot. Tidsskr, 4, 96 (1871).
Hellb., Bihang Ggl. Svensk Vetensk. Akad. Handl., 21 (13). 51 (1896).
Müll. Arg., Bull. Herb. Boissier, II, app. 1, 40 (1894).
“Thallus stout, rigid, dark golden-yellow or orange-yellow, knotted-warty and wrinkled centrally; apothecia with crenate margin.” (Description translated from Anders “Die Strauch —und Laubflechten Mittelseuropas” p. 192 (1928)).
Habitat. Mostly on rocks.
Distribution. Eurasia, New Zealand.
I have not seen specimens which clearly belong here, although most large specimens of var. parietina are more or less wrinkled and some have a few apothecia with subscrenulate margins.
Xanthoria parietina (L) Th. Fr. var. ectanea (Ach) Grönl.
Parmelia parietinaβectanea Ach., Lich. univ. 464 (1810).
Xanthoria parietina var. ectanea Grönl., Bot. Tidsskr. 4, 161 (1871).
Nyl., Synops. Lich., 410 (1860).
Zahlbr., Lich. N. Z. 122 (1941).
Physcia parietina Oliver, Trans. N. Z. Inst., 44, 87 (1911).
Parmelia elegans Hook, Fl. N. Z., 291 (1855).
Placodium elegans Hook., Handb. N. Z. Fl., 577 (1867).
Nyl., Lich. N. Z., 58 (1888).
Caloplaca elegans Hellb, Bohang Kgl. Svensk Vetensk. Akad. Handl., 21 (13), 66 (1896).
Allan, Tuatara 1, 21 (1948) (pr. p.).
Caloplaca elegans var. tenuis Cranw. & Moore, Rec. Auck. Museum, 1, 314 (1935).
Zahlbr., Lich. N. Z. 121 (1941) (pr. p.)
Thallus yellow to orange, white or pinkish beneath, lobes more or less radiate, smooth, plane or slightly swollen or channelled, 2–10 mm long by (½-) 0. 8–1. 5 mm wide, linear, sparingly branched, separated, contiguous or imbricate, adpressed or with raised edges; upper cortex 12–25μ thick, outer part interspersed with yellow granules; algal layer 25–40μ thick, medulla usually loosely woven, 70–140μ thick; lower cortex 15–20μ thick; apothecia concolorous with the thallus, ½-1-½ (-2½) mm dia., plane to convex, margin usually persistent; hypothecium and proper margin 40μ thick, hymenium (55-) 65μ high, paraphyses 2μ thick, asci clavate to irregularly saccate, about 40 × 15μ, spores ellipsoid, (?8-) 13 (-16) × (5½-) 6–87½μ, r = about 0. 5.
Habitat. Usually on coastal rocks.
Distribution. More or less cosmopolitan.
(a) Yellow, forming a mass of imbricated and epithalline lobes 2–4 mm long × 1 mm wide, not appressed, weakly concave or channelled, medulla 70–100μ thick, spores about 14 × 7½μ.
Otago: Port Chalmers, T 703 (ZA 53 in CHR). Southland: Doubtful Sound, 3963.
(b) Forming circular patches of contiguous and/or imbricate lobes, medulla 90–120μ thick, spores about 13 × 8μ.
North Island: Hen and Chickens Ids. (L. M. Cranwell) CHR; North Wairoa River, CHR; Rangitoto (H. H. Allan) CHR; Coromandel Peninsula (L. B. Moore, ZA 126) CHR; Whangarei (W. A. Given) CHR; Hutt Valley, on bone (H. H. Allan) CHR; Wellington, Mr., 584. Marlborough: Goose Bay, Mr., 7335. Nelson: Karteriteri, Mr., 1248 (pr. p.). Otago: Cornish Head, 3883 (contorted from with large apothecia); Harbour Cone, 500ft, Mr., 5419; Waikouaiti, T 30 (on bark), T 2928; Howell's Point, T 818 (uncertain); Portobello, 3513, 3514; Blackhead, T 403; Mosgiel (on tree) 058 (pr. p.); Brighton, 021a. Southland: Riverton, T 787. Stewart Island: (Cockayne, 0836) CHR.
(c) Lobes stellate-radiate, discrete, sometimes plano-convex, appressed, spores 13 × 8μ (perhaps f. ratilans (Ach.) Zahlbr.).
North Island. Ahuriri (Colenso, 2964) WELT; (?) Hawke's Bay (Colenso, 6244) WELT. Westland Greymouth (W. A. Mackay) CHR Nelson; Kaiteriteri, Mr., 1248 (pr. p.); Maitai Valley, Mr., 7326 Otago: Akatore Estuary, 3730, 3731.
(d) Thallus 4 cm dia., orange-red, lobes stellate-radiate, 10–20 mm long × 0.5 mm wide, 0. 2–0. 5 mm apart, medulla about 100μ thick, spores 5½-6½μ wide.
North Island: Whangarei (W. A. Given) CHR (pr. p., on bark).
(e) Lobes irregularly humped 1-1½ mm wide, contiguous, medulla loose, 120–150μ thick, apothecia very convex, hymenium 55μ high, spores 8½-10½ × 6-½-8μ.
Otago: Kyeburn, 1,000ft, T 41 (and in CHR). Southland: Ben Bolt, 1,500ft, 1191.
Except in the few cases where a height or substrate is given, all the above specimens were collected from coastal rock, where the variety is common, often invading the Verrucaria zone; elsewhere it seems to be very rare. The distribution pattern is quite similar to that recorded in Britain for var. ectanea (Smith, 1922). I have put the local specimens into five groups for which names may be already available. Groups (c) and (d) look deceptively like Caloplaca elegans from which they are only distinguished by the rather flatter less regular lobes which are never partly hollow; group (c) usually occurs near high-tide mark or in exposed situations, and seems only a trivial form of the variety, but the plant in group (d) may be distinct although it does not appear to belong to any of the recorded varieties of Xanthoria parietina with such narrow lobes. The small specimens in group (e) from subalpine situations are hardly separable from the plants in group (b) superficially, but are certainly distinct in spore measurements. Although the usual specimens of var. ectanea are easily distinguished from var. parietina, intermediate specimens are not uncommon—e. g., 021a, Mr. 584, T 787 above.
Much more collecting and field studies are needed, particularly in the North Island, to decide the status of the forms grouped together under var. ectanea here.
Xanthoria parietina. (L) Th. Fr. var. incavata (Stirt.) Murray, comb. nov. Physcia incavata Stirt., Trans. N. Z. Inst., 32, 82 (1899).
Xanthoria incavata Zahlbr., Lich. N. Z., 123 (1941).
Thallus orbicular, yellow, flat, more or less continous centrally with marginal lobes 3–5 mm wide × 5–8 mm long and up to 0.2 mm thick, contiguous, broadly rounded, entire, matt to rather arachnoid or minutely pitted, without longitudinal wrinkles, appressed, white beneath; medulla arachnoid, up to 150 thick; apothecia brodly sessile, initially plane with thin margin becoming convex with excluded margin, orange, 2–3 mm dia hymenium 75μ high, spores ellipsoid to reniform 13–15 × 8μ pycnidia. immature.
Habitat. On bark.
Distribution. New Zealand. Marlborough: Molesworth (A. J. Healy) CHR; Mt. Tapuaenuku, 4,000ft, T 1526. Canterbury: Selwyn Gorge (A. K. Beckett), Canterbury Museum. (Type, or perhaps isotype specimen).
The specimens I have seen are not very uniform, and the plant is evidently not specifically distinct from X. parietina. In var. parietina specimens with lobes as wide as 5 mm are always ascending at the margin, somewhat imbricate and more or less wrinkled, with the apothecia larger and hardly convex, but the microscopic details are probably not significantly different. The type (? or isotype) specimen is only a fragment with two lobes and has been damaged. Var. incavata seems close to the South African var. macrophylla (Stizb.) Hillm. which, however, has pale apothecia with shining waxy margins.
Caloplaca elegans Th. Fr. var. elegans.
Thallus orbicular, orange-red, lobes radiate, contiguous or partly imbricate and loosely attached, about 1 mm wide, plano-convex, sparingly branched, surface often minutely pitted centrally, medulla arachnoid or or lobes partly hollow, apothecia 06–12 mm dia., broadly sessile, concolorous, margin persistent; hymenium 60μ high, spores 10½-13 × 6½-8½7mu; r=0.2–0.3.
Habitat. On rock in alpine, arctic or antarctic regions.
Distribution. Northern and alpine Europe, Himalayas, North America, New Zealand, Polar regions Canterbury: Mistake Peak (Tekapo), 6,200ft, Sc 39; Godley Valley, over 3,000ft, Sc 168 (pr. p.), Sc 217, Sc 218; Ben Ohau Range, 6,000ft, Mason, 153.
Caloplaca elegans var. tenuis (Wahlbrg) Th. Fr.
Similar to var. elegans but lobes narrower, not contiguous. Canterbury: Porter's Pass, T 1613; Godley Valley, 3,500ft, Sc 168 (pr. p.). Ben Ohau Range, 6,000ft, Mason, 150.
The species is strictly alpine in New Zealand and seems at present to be restricted to the eastern side of the Southern Alps, where it may be locally fairly common on south facing rocks. Reports of the species in northern coastal areas, (e. g.) Rangitoto, evidently refer to forms of Xanthoria parietina.
Among other species which could be mistake for Xanthoriae are Caloplaca murorum, C. lobulata, an undescribed species in section Gasparrinia and another in section Thamnonoma. The new species will be described in a later paper.
Genus Teloschistes Norm.
Thallus fruticose or subfruticose, flattened and dorsiventral to terete, branched; cortex of more or less horizontally disposed hyphae encrusted in the outer parts with pigment granules in most species; algae Trebouxia; thallus often with marginal fibrils. Apothecia sessile or stalked, lecanorine, yellow or orange; asci 8-spored, spores hyaline, polaribi- or tetralocular; pycnidia in small warts, pycnoconidia cylindrical, commonly constricted at centre.
The genus has perhaps 20 species, most of which (including the New Zealand members) belong to section Teloschistes with polaribilocular spores.
|1||Branches more or less terete to angled or flat and much branched||flavicans|
|Branches distinctly flattened, not extensively branched||2|
|2||Plant without soredia||3|
|Plant sorediate, on rock or trees||5|
|3||Fibrils (or rhizines) on ventral surface but not on margins; thallus grey-green||xanthorioides|
|Rhizines rare or absent, fibrils marginal||4|
|4||Plants to 20 mm high, rigid, lobes usually 1 mm or more wide||chrysophthalmus|
|Plants to 5 mm high, lobes rarely up to 1 mm wide||spinosus|
|5||Mature lobes hooded, farinose sordiate under open ends||velifer|
|Lobes granular sorediate or margins or ends||fasciculatus|
|T. chrysophthalmus subspecific taxa|
|1||Thallus lobes long and narrow, 1–3 cm × ½–1 mm, forming an open clump||var. flavoalbidus|
|Thallus lobes relatively shorter and broader||var. chrysophthalmus||2|
|2||Apothecia with marginal fibrils||3|
|Apothecia with very few or no fibrils||4|
|3||Thallus mostly yellow||normal form|
|Thallus grey, fibrils grey or yellowish||f. cinereus|
|4||Thallus mostly yellow||f. denudatus|
|Thallus grey or grey-green||f. subinermis|
|T. fasciculatus varieties|
|Lobes erect, 4–8 mm long, plant 5–10 mm high||var. fasciculatus|
|Lobes ascending, shorter, plants 2–5 mm high||var. nodulosus|
|T. flavicans varieties|
|Plant to 10 cm high in loose clumps, lobes terete, yellow with black-tipped cilia||var. flavicans|
|Plant to 2 cm high in compact clumps. main branches flattened, orange||var. compressus|
Teloschistes chrysophthalmus (L) Th. Fr. var. chrysophthalmus.
Lichen chrysophthalmus L., Mantissa altera, 311 (1771).
Teloschistes chrysophthalmus Th. Fr. Genera heter., 51 (1861).
Cheel, Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W., 27, 372 (1902).
Cranw. & Moore, Rec. Auck. Mus., l, 314 (1935).
Zahlbr; Lich. N. Z. 123 (1941).
Physcia chrysophthalma Nyl., Synops. Lich., 410 (1860).
J. Linn. Soc. Bot., 9, 249 (1865).
Lich. N. Z., 45 (1888).
Linds., Trans. Linn. Soc., 25, 518 (1866).
Hook, Handb N.Z. Fl., 572 (1867).
Parmelia chrysophthalma DC., Buch; Trans. N.Z. Inst., 6, 231 (1873).
Hook, Fl. N.Z., II, 287 (1855).
Thallus small foliose-fruticose, in small clumps to 4 cm dia. and ½–2 cm high, usually formed from single plants. Thallus initially of stellate-radiate laciniae ½ mm wide, eventually forming erect, branched, rigid, dorsiventral lobes up to 2½ mm wide with almost spinous marginal fibrils, golden or orange yellow above particularly near ends of lacinae, matt or slightly shining, smooth or weakly longitudinally ridged; white or partly yellow below and usually longitudinally veined and wrinkled; cortex 20–50 (-100)μ thick, very uneven, of horizontal or periclinal thick-walled hyphae; algal layer mostly on upper side, discontinuous, algal cells Trebouxia, 10–15μ dia.; medulla of loosely woven 3μ dia. hyphae or lobes partly hollow; lower cortex like upper but more uneven. Apothecia on the ends or margins of small laciniae, 1–6 mm wide, nearly plane or older ones convex, disc orange-yellow, margin thin, slightly elevated, with up to 150 concolorous fibrils ½-2 mm long; hypothecium hyaline, 10–25μ thick, hymenium hyaline except for granular yellow epithecium, 40–55μ high; paraphyses simple or furcate, 1½μ thick, thickened at tip; asci almost ellipsoid, about 35 × 13μ; spores ellipsoid, (10-) 13–15 × (3½-) 5–6 (-8) μ, r= 0. 25–0. 5 Pyenidia not seen on New Zealand specimens.
Habitat. On bark.
Distribution. Probably cosmopolitan. North Island: New Lynn (L. M. Cranwell) CHR; Atiamuri, Allison—, Taupo (Colenso, 998) WELT; Waitangi (Hawke's Bay, Colenso, 3008, 3540 and 3555) WELT; Napier (Colenso) WELT; Canterbury; Waipara (A. J. Healy, 58/493) CHR; Leithfield (A. J. Healy, 58/530) CHR; Temuka, Mason, 253; Timaru (H. H. Allan) CHR; Otago: Waikouaiti, T 27, T 334; Macrae's Hill, T 2481, Mt. Royal, T 322 (pr p); the Kaik, Mr., 579, Taiaroa Head, T 1023, Saddle Hill, 1,000ft, Mr., 852; Taieri, 3559; Akatore R., Mr., 583; Balclutha (H. H. Allan) CHR. Southland Waikaia, Mr., 5414; Kaiwera, Mr., 1317; (pr. p.), Gore, Mr., 606; Forest Hill, 018.
Teloschistes chrysophthalmus var. chrysophthalmus f. cinereus (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr.
Teloschistes chrysophthalmus var. cinereus Müll. Arg., Flora 63, 265 (1880).
Teloschistes chrysophthalmus f. cinereus Zahlbr, Cat. Lich. univ., 7, 316.
Lich, N.Z., 123 (1941).
Thallus and apothecial margins greyish, K-, fibrils grey, or yellowish grey, thallus sometimes pale yellow tinted at ends.
Distribution. South America, New Zealand. Otago: Dunedin, 1220, 1221; Saddle Hill, Mr., 484. Southland: Kaiwera, Mr., 725, Mr., 5415; Invercargill, Mr., 5416.
Teloschistes chrysophthalmus var. chrysophthalmus f. denudatus (Hoffm.) Mull. Arg.
Platisma denudatum Hoffm; Descr Adumbr Pl. Lich., II, 23 (1794).
Teloschistes chrysophthalmus f. denudatus Müll. Arg. apud Zahlbi., Lich. rar. exs. no. 40.
Teloschistes chrysophthalmus var. denudatus Müll Arg., Bull Herb Boissier, II, app. 1, 29 (1894).
Thallus yellow or partly grey, apothecia usually larger than in the common form, margins without fibrils or with a few very short ones.
Distribution. Europe, New Zealand. North Island: Tauranga CHR; Kakariki (A. J. Healy) CHR (very small plants); Wellington Heads (A. J. Healy) CHR. Otago: Brighton, Mr., 776. Southland: Te Anau (W. G. H. Edwards) 1183, 1184.
Teloschistes chrysophthalmus var. chrysophthalmus f. subinermis (Müll. Arg.) Zahlbr.
Teloschistes chrysophthalmus var. subinermis Müll. Arg., Flora, 63, 265 (1880).
Teloschistes chrysophthalmus f. subinermis Zahlbr, Cat. Lich. Univ. 7, 318.
Lich. N.Z., 123 (1941).
Thallus grey, including apothecial margin which lacks fibrils; fibrils on laciniae few and short.
Distribution. Temperate Southern Hemisphere. Otago: Mt. Royal Station(Thomson, H 57=T 322 pr. p.) CHR.
The species is probably common throughout New Zealand, at least in coastal areas and on exotic trees, particularly in orchards. Like Xanthoria parietina var. parietina, it may be partly or entirely introduced, although it was certainly recorded by 1845. The above forms are not well separated from the typical form, which I take to be that called f. armatus by Hillmann (1930). Certainly these forms can hardly be maintained as distinct varieties as was done by Hillman. The North Island material is generally rather smaller and more delicate than typical Otago specimens, but both differ notably from Hillmann's description of European plants in the considerably lower hymenium and narrower spores (Hillmann gives the hymenium as 70–82μ high and the spores as broadly ellipsoid, 10–17 × 6–8μ). In the local specimens I have examined the spores are rarely more than 6½μ wide; in the Tauranga specimen under f. denudatus many of the spores measure 15 × 3½μ. If these differences prove to be significant taxonomically, presumably a complete set of new forms and varieties would be required.
In the Knight Collection in WELT are a number of specimens without locality which apparently belong to var. expallens Müll. Arg., with small yellow rosulate thalli with small entire margined apothecia. I have not seen any undoubted New Zealand specimens, and Knight's material probably came from Australia. However, in view of the discovery of the Australian T. sieberianus and spinosus in New Zealand, the occurrence of T. chrysophthalmus var. expallens here also cannot be discounted.
Teloschistes chrysophthalmus var. flavoalbidus (Krmphb.) Malme.
Physcia chrysophthalma f. flavo-albida Krmph, Verh K. K. zool-bot Ges Wien, 18, 322 (1868)
Teloschistes chrysophthalmus var. flavoalbidus Malme, Ark. f. Bot., 20A, 46 (1926).
Plant up to 5 cm dia, 3 cm high, forming an open cushion of relatively long, erect, linear, sparingly branched lobes ½–-1 (1½) mm wide with fibrils mostly terminal, pale yellow near tips of lobes, elsewhere grey-white, cortex 35–40μ thick, more even and with more horizontal hyphae than in var. chrysophalmus, apothecia small, yellow, with fibrillose margins, hymenium 50μ high, spores ellipsoid, 12–15 × 5. 2–6 5μ, r=0 3–0 5.
Distribution. Chile. Otago; Portobello, 3905.
Further collections may show this to be no more than a form of the species, although the few specimens in this collection seem distinct. Again the New Zealand material I have put here has narrower spores than described for the Chilean specimens, although there seem no macroscopic differences (Hillmann gives the spores as 10–14 × 7–8 .5μ).
Teloschistes fasciculatus Hillm var. fasciculatus.
Teloschistes fasciculatus Hillm, Fedde's Report Seec nov, 49, 176 (1938).
Zahlbr, Lich NZ, 123 (1941)
Zahlbr, Lich NZ, 123 (1941)
Thallus forming clumps ½–3 cm dia and up to 1 cm high of interlaced erect orange-red laciniae 3–10 mm long by 0. 15–0. 5 mm wide, sparingly branched, smooth and whitish beneath except in the upper portions, flat or caniculate above, matt or reddish pruinose, with margins granular sorediate or with whitish eroded spots; soredia concolorous, in minute elliptical soralia or sometimes a few patches of farinose yellow soredia present also, sparingly fibrillate on margins, fibrils concolorous, ½-1 mm long. Cortex of periclinal to longitudinal hyphae, the outer part heavily interspersed with orange granules, 10–50μ thick, algae very few, scattered at base of cortex, algal cells Trebouxia, 14–18μ, with many zoosporangia up to 30μ dia. present, lower cortex similar to the upper but hyphae more vertical. Neither apothecia nor pycnidia seen.
Habitat. On rock debris in subalpine situations.
Distribution. New Zealand. Otago: Mt. Sutton (Lake Ohau), 2,300ft, 1767;
Mt. Ida, T 2742; Alexandra (W. Martin) 1664, Mr. 7351; Kyeburn, T 24 (and in
CHR); Maungatua 2,900ft, 0339a, 1962, T 357 (and as H56 in CHR, isotype specimens).
A very distinct species, which is very rare in the type locality and elsewhere, although it is probably to be found throughout inland subalpine Otago. There is evidently another anthraquinone pigment present besides physcion, since application of KOH gives red needles and purple prisms of the potassium salts.
Teloschistes fasciculatus Hillm. var. nodulosus Murray, var. nov.
A varietate typicale differt lacinus brevioribus, subimbricatis ad terminalia nodulososorediatis, plantam plus caespitosam formantibus; apothecia pycnidiaque non visa.
Thallus forming patches 5–20 mm dia. and 2–5 mm high, of ascending more or less imbricate sparingly branched laciniae 1–4 mm long × 0.1–0.8 mm wide, mostly plane, pruinose or not, yellow or orange above, mostly white below, with a few concolorous fibrils on margins and sometimes also on upper surface; margins entire towards the base, irregularly nodulose and sorediate towards the ends; soredia mostly granular, but a few elongated patches of greenish-yellow farinose soredia often present also: structure as for the typical but medulla more loosely woven.
Habitat. On mosses in alpine localities.
Distribution. Canterbury: Cass (W. R. Philipson, β11) Canterbury University Bot. Dept.; Mistake Peak, 5,000ft, Sc 69; Cass River, 4,000ft, Sc 55, Sc 1070; Tekapo (H. H. Allan V 181) CHR (pr. p.); Ben Ohau Range, 5,000ft, Mason, 130 (pr. p.); 6,000ft, Mason, 154 (Type). Southland: Ben Bolt, 1,500ft, 0339 (doubtful).
The variety is superficially similar to Antarctic forms of Xanthoria candelaria, from which it is distinguished by the fibrils and the different structure of the cortex, although the lower cortex in a few specimens approaches a plectenchymatous appearance. The Southland specimen is very small and has no soredia, and possibly belongs to some other species.
Teloschistes flavicans (Sw) Norm var. flavicans
Lichen flavicans Sw., Nov. Gen. Spec. Plant., 147 (1788).
Teloschistes flavicans Norm., Nyt. Mag. f. Naturvid, 7, 229 (1853)
Physcia flavicans Hook; Handb. N.Z. Fl., 572 (1867).
Teloschistes flavicans f. glaber Wain. Cranw. & Moore, Rec. Auck. Mus., l, 314 (1935).
Zahlbr; Lich; NZ; 123 (1941)
Thallus pale yellow, forming loose clumps 2–10 cm dia., 4–10 cm high, of terete or slightly angled matt or minutely tomentose laciniae 0.1–0.4 mm dia., dichotomously branched with nodes 1–5 mm apart, with scattered 1 mm long black-tipped fibrils and a few pale sorediate patches; cortex 80μ thick, of longitudinal hyphae with some vertical hyphae extending to form a thin tomentum; algae scattered under cortex, 8–12μ dia.; medulla hardly evident and lobes mostly hollow. (Apothecia 2–4 mm dia., lateral, sessile, plane to convex, yellow to brown, hymenium 70–100μ high, spores 12–18 × 6–12μ. Adapted from Hillmann. 1930).
Habitat. On trees or rarely mossy rocks.
Distribution. Cosmopolitan in warm climates. North Island: Hen Island (L. M. Cranwell, ZA 17) CHR (several collections).
The specimens seen by Zahlbruckner have black-tipped fibrils, whereas f. glaber is described as having all yellow fibrils. The New Zealand specimens thus correspond to var. intermedius Müll. Arg., an African form of the species, but except for this feature they are very like North American specimens.
Teloschistes flavicans var. compressus Murray, var. nov.
Evernia flavicans Hook., Fl. N.Z., II, 269 (1855).
(?) Physcia flavicans Linds., Trans. Linn. Soc., 25, 519 (1866).
A varietate typicale differt laciniis brevioribus, glabris, pro majore parte compressus, ad 0.8 mm latis et supra major minusve plants, solum ramulis ultimis teretibus, fibrillis concoloribus dispersis.
Thallus forming an orange-red mat to 20 cm dia. and 1–1½ cm high, of several times di- and trichotomously branched laciniae: laciniae mostly flat and dorsiventral or weakly
caniculate, up to 0.8 mm wide and 0.15 mm thick, final branches terete to angular, 0.1–0.15 mm dia., with scattered concolorous or rarely black-tipped fibrils and granular sorediate patches on margins and upper surface, cortex about 50μ thick of conglutinate horizontal hyphae without protruding hyphae, algae scattered under cortex, Trebouxia, 10–14μ dia.; medulla thin and obsolete or arachnoid and up to 80μ thick, lobes not hollow, sterile.
Habitat. Uncertain, apparently on subalpine rocks or logs.
Distribution. Australia, New Zealand. North Island: Waiariki (near Wellington) (Colenso 2170) WELT; Colonial Knob (Wellington) (H. H. Allan) CHR.
The identification of these specimens with the Australian variety is not certain, although they match the meagre description very well. The Australian plant is apparently known only from the type specimen, and this was not found by Hillmann (1930). According to Hillmann var. croceus differs in being a larger plant with nearly terete lobes, and var. exilis in being usually grey-green and forming much smaller clumps than Colenso's plant. The plant doubtfully identified as T. flavicans by Lindsay was from a subalpine situation, and may also belong here. The variety looks intermediate between var. flavicans and T. fasciculatus.
Teloschistes spinosus (Hook. f. & Tayl.) Murray, comb nov.
Parmelia spinosa Hook. f. & Tayl., Lond. J. Bot, 3,644 (1844).
Teloschistes sieberianus Hillm, Hedwigia, 69, 315 (1930) (pr. p.).
Thallus yellow to orange-yellow, initially squamulose on twigs, finally forming small cushions to 3 cm dia. and 2–5 mm high of more or less stellate-radiate laciniae 1–3 (-5) mm long × 0.3–0.8 mm wide and 0.1–0.15 mm thick, sparingly branched, flat to canicullate above, loosely adnate to substrate or ascending or erect, with scattered 1-½ mm long concolorous marginal fibrils and a few whitish rhizines on lower surface; esorediate, upper cortex fibrous, 20–50μ thick of 4μ dia. hyphae, algal layer irregular, with Trebouxia cells 10–18μ dia.; medulla loosely woven of 3μ dia. thin-walled hyphae, lower cortex up to 50μ thick, between fibrous and plectenchymatous. Apothecia at first sessile on upper surface, eventually appearing stipitate with 2–4 mm long grooved stalks (due to the thallus thickening and becoming erect), 3–5 mm dia., plane or slightly convex and sinuate, margin thin and disappearing, disc slightly darker than thallus, matt; hypothecium obscurely cellular, 40–45μ high; hymenium 65μ high, hyaline except for orange granular epithecium, paraphyses conglutinate, simple or furcate, 1½μ thick, clavate at tip; asci 40 × 13μ, thickened in upper part; spores broadly ellipsoid, 13–15 × 6–7½μ, r=0.4, pycnidia semi-immersed near margins of lobes, globose, 150μ dia., orange, pycnidiospores cylindrical (?) pseudoseptate, 3 × 1μ.
Habitat. On debris.
Distribution. Eastern Australia. Westland: Toaroha River, 3,000ft, Sc. 159.
Canterbury: Temuka, Mason, 256.
The species may be very local, as it has not been found in several other likely places in the South Island. The Temuka specimen is only a very small scrap, and could be an aberrant specimen of the following species, but the other collection of several plants agree exactly with Hillmann's description; the plant has much the apperance of a small delicate T. chrysophthalmus.
Teloschistes velifer Wilson.
Teloschistes velifer Wils., Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasmania 1892, 176 (1893).
(?) Physcia parietina var. lychnea Linds., Trans. Linn. Soc., 25, 518 (1866).
Xanthoria parietina var. spinulosa Mull. Arg. Bull. Herb. Boissier, II, app. 1, 40.
(1894) (not of Krempelhubei, 1868).
J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 32, 203 (1896).
(?) Teloschistes chrysophthalmus var. fornicatus Müll Arg., Bull. Herb. Boissier, 4, 89 (1896).
Zahlbr., Lich. N.Z., 123 (1941).
Xanthoria spinulosa Hillm., Ann. Mycol., 10 (1922).
Zahlbr., Lich. N.Z. 122 (1941).
(?) Xanthoria parietina f. rutilans. Zahlbi. Lich. N.Z. 122 (1941).
Thallus ascending, erect to subfruticose, orange-yellow to orange-red, varying from individual plants 3 mm dia. and 2–3 mm high to small cushions up to 3 cm dia. and 1 cm high. Juvenile lobes yellow, stellate-radiate, more or less linear ascending at ends, flat (0.2-) 0.5 (-0.8) mm wide, di- or trichotomously divided white and smooth beneath with
yellow marginal (or rarely ventral) fibrils 0 5–1.5 mm long; mature lobes orange-red, erect, weakly bullate, hollow, 2–5 (-8) mm long with ends expanded to 2–3 mm wide, hooded and open-ended to expose the algal layer as greenish soredia, with few or no basal fibrils; upper cortex 15–35 (-50)μ thick, uneven, of more or less longitudinally arranged 1μ dia. conglutinate hyphae; algal layer discontinuous with scattered clumps of Trebouxia cells up to 15×13μ, medulla arachnoid, of 3μ dia hyphae, absent near hooded ends of lobes; lower cortex about 40μ thick, fibrous or hyphae forming a loose few called plectenchyma. Apothecia very rare, one per frond, 1–2 mm dia, at first broadly sessile on upper surface with prominent inrolled thalline margin, finally appearing terminal on 1–2 mm high striate pedicels and then moderately convex with excluded margin, disc orange-red, matt; hypothecium 5–15μ high, hyaline, not well delimited; hymenium 55–60μ high, paraphyses simple or furcate, 2μ dia., asci clavate, thickened in upper part, 50×12–14μ; spores ellipsoid with narrow ends, 10–13 x5½-6½μ, r=0.3–0.5; pycnidia not seen.
Habitat. On twigs, bark, wood, rocks, rarely dry soil.
Distribution. Tasmania, New Zealand. North Island: Waiotapu, Allison, 305 and 334; Hutt Valley (H. H. Allan) CHR; Marlborough: Molesworth, CHR. Westland: Kumara, Mr., 1277; Greymouth (Mackay, W50) CHR. Canterbury: Waipara (A. J. Healy, 58/491) CHR, Hurunui (A. J. Healy, 58/502) CHR; Cheviot (A. J. Healy) CHR; Castle Hill (Z 33) CHR; Godley Valley, 2,500ft, Sc 223 and 224, (H. H. Allan) CHR; Esk River, 2,300ft, Sc 42 (plants unusually large and finely laciniate); Lake Tekapo, Mason, 248 and 250: Otago. Lake Ohau (R. Jones) 1722; Pigroot, T 1421; Shag Valley, T 1422. (and as H4 in CHR under T. chrysophthalmus var. fornicatus); Patearoa T 1378 (=H2 in CHR as T. chrys var. fornicatus); Lamb Hill, T 263 (and in CHR as X. parietina var. rutilans; Mihiwaka 1,000ft, Mr., 481; Waikouaiti, T 1849, Dunedin, T 898 (=H3 in CHR); Mr., 1129, 1223, Abbot's Hill, 1,200ft, 1605; Taieri, T 124 (=ZA 55 in CHR), T 1007 (=H61 in CHR); Maungatua, Mr., 1153; Taieri Mouth, 1294, 1372, 1446, 1699; Conical Hills (G. B. Rawlings) CHR. Southland. Forest Hill, 027, 033; Invercargill, Mr., 6917; Waihopai, Mr., 5415, Mr., 5417; Stewart Island Table Hill, Mr., 770.
There is evident confusion over the correct name for this very characteristic species. Zahlbruckner, in his Cat Lichenum Universalis, seems to have followed Du Rietz in identifying the New Zealand plant with Parmelia spinosa Hook. f. & Tayl., but Hooker himself later stated (1855, p. 287) that their species was identical with P. sieberiana Laur (i. e., Teloschistes sieberianus). Assuming this to be correct (compare Hillmann, 1922, 1930), Krempelhuber's is the first valid name for the species. Zahlbruckner in his Lich. N.Z. incorrectly cited the species as Xanthoria spinulosa (Hook. f. & Tayl.) D. Rietz, although the reference specimens in CHR are labelled X. spinosa Du Rietz. Apparently when Hillmann monographed the Xanthoriae he did not find Krempelhuber's material and depended on a specimen identified by Müller Argau. Although Hillmanns, description of Müller Argau's specimen confirms that it belongs to the present species, it does not clearly agree with Krempelhuber's account, which could equally apply to T. fasciculatus and perhaps other species.
I have not seen Müller Argau's description of T. chrysophthalmus var. fornicatus, but in any case this name would be predated by Teloschistes velifer Wils. (1892). Wilson's description of Tasmanian material is unmistakeable, although he gives details of the apothecia despite the statement that the specimens were sterile! The near absence of the species from older New Zealand collections is surprising, but may be due to its apparent rarity in the North Island, it is quite common in Otago and Southland. Du Rietz suggested that this species might belong in Teloschistes., although he had apparently seen no specimens, and in fact the structure of the cortex clearly relates it to this genus. Juvenile specimens of velifer, sieberianus fasciculatus and even chrysophithalmus are not easily separated. Fruiting specimens
must be very rare and have not certainly been reported before. I have seen only three collections of fertile specimens (1372, 1605 and 1699) among some thousands observed in herbaria and in the field.
Teloschistes xanthorioides Murray, spec. nov.
Planta pulvinata, e lobis tenuibus 0.3–0.5 mm latis et 1–5 (-8) mm longis, cinereis vel ad margines dilute flavescentibus, pauce ramosis, subcrenatis, sine fibrillis marginalibus, rhizinosis; apothecia numerosa, concava vel plana, pedicullata, ad 3 mm diametro, flavescentia margine subintegro cinereo; hymenium ad 90μ altum, epithecium lutea granulosum, K+ sanguinescens; sporae polaribiloculares, ellipsoideae, 13–15 × 8–10μ; pycnidiosporae non maturae.
Thallus initially of greenish-grey to yellowish irregular, ascending, branched, smooth laciniae, eventually forming a cushion 3 cm dia. and 1 cm high, the centre completely obscured by the stalked apothecia and the lobes not discernible, joined to each other and the apothecial margins by white strands; lobes without marginal fibrils but with scattered white rhizines 0.2–0.8 mm long on lower surface near the margins; lobes 50–120μ thick; upper cortex 10–30μ thick, of conglutinate longitudinal to periclinal septate hyphae 3–4μ dia; algal layer up to 40μ thick in outer lobes, mostly absent in centre of clump; medulla of rather loosely arranged 2μ dia. hyphae, hardly present in outer lobes; lower cortex 30–50μ thick. Apothecia 1–3 mm dia. initially broadly sessile, finally elevated on short thalline stalks 0.5 mm dia., with grey entire or subcrenate efibrillose thalline margin, warted near the stalk; disc nearly plane, yellow, matt; hypothecium hyaline, obscurely cellular, 25–30μ thick; hymenium 75–88μ high; paraphyses more or less simple, conglutinate, asci clavate, 45–55×15μ, 8-spored; spores broadly ellipsoid, polaribilocular 13–15×8–10 (-11)μ, r=0.6, together with a few monolocular subglobose spores. Pycnidia sunken in orange spots on the outer lobes but not mature.
Habitat. On twigs.
Distribution. Tauranga, on mangrove CHR (Type); New Lynn (L. M. Cranwell) CHR (pr. min. p. with T. chrysophthalmus).
The new species looks very like a large Xanthoria polycarpa (Hoffm.) Flag., but this European species has a well-defined cellular cortex, and lacks the prominent white rhizines of T. xanthorioides. It is close also to T. chrysophthalmus var. expallens Mull., Arg., but has higher hymenia and broader spores among other differences. The presence of rhizines is unusual in the genus, and is reported only for the South American T. hypoglaucus Zahlbr., a species in section Niorma with polaritetralocular spores.
Xanthoria aurea (Rich.) Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ. 7, 277.
Parmelia aurea Rich., Voy. de I'Astrolobe, Bot. I., 23 (1832).
From the description and illustration the plant seems to be a form of Xanthoria parietina var. ectanea, although I have not seen any white specimens. It is not present in later collections from Astrolabe Harbour (Kaiteriteri) or elsewhere, except for a report without adequate description from South America (Räsänen, 1932) The type specimen has not been located, although it should be in the Paris Museum.
I am indebted particularly to Messrs. W. Martin, K. W. Allison, D. Scott and G. Mason, and the Directors of Botany Division and the Dominion Museum for gifts and loans of specimens.
Added in Proof
Since this paper was submitted I have seen the type specimens of most of the Australasian Teloschistes, and have been obliged to correct in proof the names of T. flavicans var. compressus, spinosus and velifer to avoid erecting new synonyms. The discussions are now partly in error, and will be revised later T. sieberianus is also in New Zealand.
Dodge, C. W., and Baker, G. E., 1938. “Botany of the Second Byrd Antarctic Expedition,” Annals Miss Bot. Gard, 25, 515–718.
Hillmann, J., 1922. “Ubersicht über die Arten der Flechtengattung Xanthoria (Th. Fi.) Arn.”, Hedwigia, 63, 198–208.
— 1930. “Studien über die Flechtengattung Teloshistes Norm.”, Hedwigia, 69, 303–343.
— 1935. “Teloschistaceae” in Rabh. Kryptogr. Flora, 9, 6 (1).
Hooker, J. D., 1855. Babington, C. “Lichenes” in “Flora Novae Zelandiae,” Vol. II.
Smith, A. L., 1918. “British Lichens” Vol. I., London.
J. Murray,Chemistry Department,
Uiversity of Otago,
Dunedin, New Zealand.